Node cooperation in hybrid ad hoc networks

Naouel Ben Salem, Levante Buttyán, Jean Pierre Hubaux, Markus Jakobsson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

70 Citations (Scopus)


A hybrid ad hoc network is a structure-based network that is extended using multihop communications. Indeed, in this kind of network, the existence of a communication link between the mobile station and the base station is not required: A mobile station that has no direct connection with a base station can use other mobile stations as relays. Compared with conventional (single-hop) structure-based networks, this new generation can lead to a better use of the available spectrum and to a reduction of infrastructure costs. However, these benefits would vanish if the mobile nodes did not properly cooperate and forward packets for other nodes. In this paper, we propose a charging and rewarding scheme to encourage the most fundamental operation, namely packet forwarding. We use "MAC layering" to reduce the space overhead in the packets and a stream cipher encryption mechanism to provide "implicit authentication" of the nodes involved in the communication. We analyze the robustness of our protocols against rational and malicious attacks. We show that - using our solution - collaboration is rational for selfish nodes. We also show that our protocols thwart rational attacks and detect malicious attacks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-376
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2006


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  • Network-level security and protection
  • Payment schemes
  • Wireless communication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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