Understanding the internal chronology of the Late Neolithic Tisza culture and the Neolithic of the Tisza region is the subject of debate in both Hungarian and international prehistoric research. The layer sequence of the Late Neolithic Gorzsa tell from SE Hungary offers ideal match points for determining the successive phases of the Tisza culture. According to the results published so far, in the Gorzsa sequence the Tisza culture was divided into 4 main phases with a fifth phase representing the transitional period to the Early Copper Age. Excavations were carried out in 33 profiles covering about 2% of the original area of the entire settlement. The archaeostratigraphy established was based on the identification of microhorizons corresponding to settlement levels. Radiocarbon dates published thus far were created using a pool of various objects of differing microhorizons deriving from different profiles. However, as archaeological results revealed, the settlement was characterized by frequent, minor spatial shifts during its evolution into a tell complex. Here, we present a succession of 7 14C dates deriving from a single profile located at the northeastern flank of the excavation area. The 7 dates span the entire profile from the uppermost microhorizons down to the lowermost ones. The new dates were compared with the existing relative chronology mentioned above. According to our findings, material was deposited in this part of the site mainly during the first 2 phases of evolution of the tell complex. The later phases are either less developed or missing due to possibly a spatial shift of the center of the tell complex resulting first in a deceleration and finally a complete cessation of artifact accumulation to the northwest flanks of the former natural levee. Thus, the previous hypothesis of spatial shifts based on relative chronologies within the site has been corroborated. Furthermore, the congruence between our new dates corrected for any reservoir effect and the previous dates of Hertelendi (1998) may refer to a correct determination of freshwater shell carbonate reservoir effect in the fluvial system of the Tisza River, which may be used in further studies in the area.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)