New-onset diabetes is a common complication after liver transplantation. Aim: We aimed to analyze the incidence and rate of known risk factors and the impact of new-onset diabetes mellitus on postoperative outcome. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the files of 310 patients who underwent liver transplantation between 1995 and 2009. Definition of new-onset diabetes included: repeated fasting serum glucose >6.8 mmol/l and/or sustained antidiabetic therapy that was present 3 months after transplantation. Results: New-onset diabetes occurred in 63 patients (20%). Differences between the new-onset and the control group were the donor body mass index (24±3 vs. 22.4±3.6 kg/m2, p = 0.003), donor male gender (58% vs. 33%, p = 0.002), and recipient age (47.6±7.2 vs. 38.3±14.6 year, p<0.001), body mass index (26.7±3.8 vs. 23.3±5.6 kg/m 2, p<0.001), male gender (60% vs. 44%, p = 0.031). The 66% of patients with new-onset diabetes were transplanted with cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C virus infection, while in the control group the rate was 23% (p<0.001). Cumulative patient survival rates at 1, 3, 5 and 8 year were 95%, 90.6%, 88% and 88% in the control group, and 87%, 79%, 79% and 64% in the de novo group, respectively (p = 0.011). Cumulative graft survival rates at 1, 3, 5 and 8 year in the control group were 92%, 87%, 86% and 79%, in the de novo diabetes group the rates were 87%, 79%, 79%, 65%, respectively (p = NS). In case of early recurrence (in 6 months), majority of patients developed new-onset diabetes (74% vs. control 26%, p = 0.03). More patients had more than 10 times higher increase of the postoperative virus titer correlate to the preoperative titer in the de novo diabetes group (53% vs. 20%, p = 0.028). Mean fibrosis score was higher in new-onset group one year after the beginning of antiviral therapy (2.05±1.53 vs. 1.00±1.08, p = 0.039). Conclusions: Risk factors for new-onset diabetes after transplantation are elder age, obesity, male gender and cirrhosis due to hepatitis C infection. The early recurrence, viremia and more severe fibrosis after antiviral therapy have an impact on the occurrence of new-onset diabetes in hepatitis C positive patients.
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