The parathyroid hormone (PTH) family currently includes three peptides and three receptors. PTH regulates calcium homeostasis through bone and kidney PTH1 receptors. PTH-related peptide, probably also through PTH1 receptors, regulates skeletal, pancreatic, epidermal, and mammary gland differentiation and bladder and vascular smooth muscle relaxation and has a CNS role that is under investigation. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) was recently purified from bovine hypothalamus based on selective PTH2 receptor activation. PTH2 receptor expression is greatest in the CNS, where it is concentrated in limbic, hypothalamic, and sensory areas, especially hypothalamic periventricular neurons, nerve terminals in the median eminence, superficial layers of the spinal cord dorsal horn, and the caudal part of the sensory trigeminal nucleus. It is also present in a number of endocrine cells. Thus TIP39 and PTH2 receptor-influenced functions may range from pituitary and pancreatic hormone release to pain perception. A third PTH-recognizing receptor has been found in zebrafish.
- Anatomical distribution
- Peptide purification
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems