Near-substrate composition depth profile of direct current-plated and pulse-plated Fe-Ni alloys

Katalin Neuróhr, Attila Csik, Kálmán Vad, György Molnár, Imre Bakonyi, László Péter

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13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Composition depth profiles of d.c.-plated and pulse-plated Fe-Ni alloys have been investigated with the reverse depth profile analysis method. When d.c. plating is applied, the mole fraction of iron near the substrate is higher than during steady-state deposition since iron is preferentially deposited beside nickel and the achievement of the steady-state deposition condition takes time. The steady-state composition was achieved typically after depositing a 90-nm-thick alloy layer. In the pulse-plating mode, samples with nearly uniform composition could be obtained at a duty cycle of 0.2 or smaller, and a continuous change in the composition profile could be seen as a function of the duty cycle above this value. A constant sample composition was achieved with pulse-plating in a wide peak current density interval. The composition depth profile was also measured for a wide range of Fe2+ concentration. The different characteristics of the composition depth profile as a function of the deposition mode can be explained mostly in terms of mass transport effects. The elucidation of the results is fully in accord with the kinetic models of anomalous codeposition and with the assumption of the superposition of a stationary and a pulsating diffusion layer. The results achieved help to identify the conditions for the deposition of ultrathin magnetic samples with uniform composition along the growth direction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-187
Number of pages9
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Volume103
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 17 2013

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Keywords

  • Anomalous codeposition
  • Composition depth profile
  • Electrodeposition
  • Fe-Ni alloys
  • Pulse plating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Electrochemistry

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