N-Cu kölcsönhatások szabadföldi tavaszi árpa kísérletben

Imre Kádár, Péter Csathó

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Abstract

Interactions between the elements N and Cu were examined in a field experiment on spring barley set up on pseudomyceliar (calcareous) chernozem soil in 1988. The soil contained 3% humus, around 5% CaCO3 and around 20% clay in the ploughed layer. Soil analysis showed the nutrient supply level to be good for Ca, Mg, K and Mn, satisfactory for Cu, moderate for N and poor-to-moderate for P and Zn. The groundwater was at a depth of 13-15 m and the area was prone to drought.The experiment was set up in a split-plot design with 4N×3Cu = 12 treatments × 3 replications = 36 plots. The N rates (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg N·ha-1) were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate and the Cu rates (0, 50 and 100 kg Cu·ha -1) as CuSO4. The rainfall was only a third of the usual quantity in April and May and half in July. The spring barley variety Mars, used as indicator plant, was sown at a depth of 5 cm with a row distance of 12 cm, and a seed number of 60-70·m-2 and 200 kg·ha -1. The plant stand was scored on a 1-5 scale in each plot at the tillering, flowering and harvesting stages. After harvest, soil samples were taken from the ploughed layer, forming mean samples from 20 drillings per plot. Ten elements were analysed in the plant samples, while in the soil samples the KCl-EDTA-soluble Cu content and the KCl-exchangeable NH4-N and NO3-N contents were determined.The main results were as follows: li-N fertilizer rates of 100-300 kg·ha-1led to a 20-25% loss of grain yield after perennial legume alfalfa as preceding crop. Cu fertilization had no effect at all, as the soil had satisfactory Cu supplies. The average yield level was only 3 t·ha-1 grain and 3 t·ha -1 by-products. The N requirements of the low yield achieved in this dry year could be satisfied even by the unfertilized soil when grown after the N-fixing crop alfalfa. The macro-and microelement contents of the shoots at tillering increased, however, with the exception of Na and Zn as the N supplies increased. The incorporation of the nutrients N, Ca, Mn and Cu in the straw and grain at harvest was also stimulated by N fertilization. Cu fertilization had no effect on the plant composition. Copper was accumulated primarily in the roots, where the Cu concentration rose steeply from 28 mg·kg-1 in the control to 144 mg·kg-1 as the Cu supplies increased. The nutrients N, P, Mg, Zn and Cu were enriched to the greatest extent in the grain. The specific element contents of spring barley (in 1 t grain + corresponding byproducts) amounted to 32 kg N, 19 kg K2O, 12 kg P2O 5, 6 kg CaO and 4 kg MgO. These data could be useful to the extension service for the estimation of the nutrient requirements of the planned yield of spring barley. It should be noted that the specific nutrient contents of the low yields averaged around 20% more than in normal years. In addition the specific N content reflected the excessive N supply resulting from the application of 100-300 kg N·ha-1 after a legume forecrop. After the first year practically the whole of the Cu fertilizer applied could be detected in the ploughed layer in KCl+EDTA form. The 2 mg·kg -1 Cu content recorded in the control soil rose steeply to 22 and 44 mg·kg-1 in response to the addition of 50 and 100 kg Cu·ha-1·year-1, resp. The transport of Cu within the plant (vertically) was, however, inhibited.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)345-358
Number of pages14
JournalAgrokemia es Talajtan
Volume62
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Soil Science

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