Myosin phosphatase: Unexpected functions of a long-known enzyme

Andrea Kiss, Ferenc Erdődi, Beáta Lontay

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Myosin phosphatase (MP) holoenzyme is a Ser/Thr specific enzyme, which is the member of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) family and composed of a PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c/PPP1CB) and a myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1/PPP1R12A). PP1c is required for the catalytic activity of the holoenzyme, while MYPT1 regulates MP through targeting the holoenzyme to its substrates. Above the well-characterized function of MP, as the major regulator of smooth muscle contractility mediating the dephosphorylation of 20 kDa myosin light chain, accumulating data support its role in other, non-contractile functions. In this review, we summarize the scaffold function of MP holoenzyme and its roles in processes such as cell cycle, development, gene expression regulation and neurotransmitter release. In particular, we highlight novel interacting proteins of MYPT1 and pathophysiological functions of MP relevant to tumorigenesis, insulin resistance and neurodegenerative disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Phosphatases as Critical Regulators for Cellular Homeostasis edited by Prof. Peter Ruvolo and Dr. Veerle Janssens.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2-15
Number of pages14
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research
Volume1866
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019

Keywords

  • Cancer
  • Cell cycle
  • Dephosphorylation
  • Development
  • Gene expression
  • Insulin resistance
  • Interactome
  • MYPT1/PPP1R12A
  • Myosin phosphatase
  • Neurotransmitter release
  • Protein phosphatase 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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