Mycobiota of grapes collected in Hungarian and Czech vineyards in 2004

J. Varga, Z. Koncz, S. Kocsubé, T. Mátrai, J. Téren, V. Ostry, J. Skarkova, J. Ruprich, A. Kubatova, Z. Kozakiewicz

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Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species. This mycotoxin is a common contaminant of various foods including cereal products, spices, dried vine fruits, coffee, cocoa, beer and wine. Apart from cereal products, beer and wine contribute significantly to ochratoxin exposure of humans. In the Mediterranean region of Europe, the black Aspergillus species are the sources of ochratoxin contamination of grape products. In this study, we examined the source of ochratoxin contamination of grapes in Hungary and the Czech Republic. The mycobiota of grape berries from 25 Hungarian and Czech vineyards was examined. Potential ochratoxin producing fungi were only identified in grapes from Southern Hungary. Among the 16 black Aspergillus strains isolated, 12 belong to the A. niger species, and 10 produced small amounts (1.5-10 μ g kg-1) of ochratoxin A in a liquid medium. We could also identify an A. tubingensis isolate which produced 3.5 μ g kg -1 ochratoxin A in a liquid medium at pH 6.0. However, the amount of ochratoxin A produced was very low even in a medium which is favourable for mycotoxin production, and ochratoxin A was not detected in any of the grape juice, must and wine samples examined, indicating the absence of health hazard to costumers. Other potentially toxigenic fungi including Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium expansum and Alternaria species were also isolated. Further studies are in progress to evaluate the importance of these fungi in food safety.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-341
Number of pages13
JournalActa Alimentaria
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2007


  • Aspergillus niger
  • Aspergillus tubingensis
  • Czech Republic
  • Grape
  • Hungary
  • Ochratoxin A

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

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    Varga, J., Koncz, Z., Kocsubé, S., Mátrai, T., Téren, J., Ostry, V., Skarkova, J., Ruprich, J., Kubatova, A., & Kozakiewicz, Z. (2007). Mycobiota of grapes collected in Hungarian and Czech vineyards in 2004. Acta Alimentaria, 36(3), 329-341.