This report presents an evaluation of municipal wastewater treatment in five countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE): Poland, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Hungary, and Bulgaria. The objectives of this report are: i) to evaluate the present status of water supply, sewerage, and municipal wastewater treatment; ii) to demonstrate cost-effective wastewater treatment strategies; and iii) to estimate the cost to implement such wastewater treatment strategies. The report focuses on municipal wastewater treatment for three reasons: an analysis of economic scenarios and associated environmental consequences indicates that emissions of BOD and several other water pollutants decline only at a small extent as a result of economic transformation, even if large reductions indudstrial emissions occur. Households and small sources dominate the discharge of these water pollutants. The investment requirement to improve the existing situation would be an enormous burden even for stable eocnomies. As described below, the current state of water supply and sewerage collection is generally adequate. In some countries, new investments in water supply are proposed mostly for industrial purposes rather than improving the quality of water resources. Focusing on the pricnipal causes of water pollution therefore has the potential for alleviating water supply constraints.
|Publisher||World Bank, for the Environmental Action Programme for Central and Eastern Europe|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 1998|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)
- Environmental Science(all)