MtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisms in Hungary: Inferences from the palaeolithic, neolithic and Uralic influences on the modern Hungarian gene pool

Ornella Semino, Giuseppe Passarino, Lluís Quintana-Murci, Aiping Liu, Judit Béres, Andreas Czeizel, A. Silvana Santachiara-Benerecetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

45 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Magyars imposed their language on Hungarians but seem not to have affected their genetic structure. To better investigate this point, we analysed some mtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisms in a sample of the Hungarian Paloc who, for historical reasons, could have retained genetic traces of Magyars more than other groups. In addition, we examined a mixed sample from Budapest. About 100 individuals were tested for the markers defining all the European and Asian mtDNA haplogroups and about 50 individuals for some Y chromosome markers, namely the 12f2 and 49a,f/TaqI RFLPs, the YAP insertion, the microsatellites YCAIIa, YCAIIb, DYS19 and the Asian 50f2/C deletion. In the mtDNA analysis only two subjects belonged to the Asian B and M haplogroups. The Y chromosome analyses showed that the Paloc differed from the Budapest sample by the absence of YAP+ allele and by the DYS19 allele distribution; that the proto-European 49a,f Ht15 and the neolithic 12f2-8 Kb were rather uncommon in both groups; that there is a high prevalence of the 49a,f Ht11 and the YCAII a5-b1; and that the Asian 50f2/C deletion is absent. These results suggest that the influence of Magyars on the Hungarian gene pool has been very low through both females and males and the Hungarian language could be an example of cultural dominance. Alternative explanations are discussed. An expansion centred on YAP; 49a,f Ht11 is revealed by the median network based on compound haplotypes. 49a,f Ht11 could represent either a paleolithic marker of eastern Europe which underwent expansion after the last glacial period, or a marker of the more recent spread of the Yamnaia culture from southern Ukraine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-346
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Human Genetics
Volume8
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2000

Keywords

  • Hungary
  • Paloc
  • Y chromosome polymorphisms
  • mtDNA variations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

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