Monitoring nanoparticle formation during laser ablation of graphite in an atmospheric-pressure ambient

L. Landström, Zs Márton, M. Boman, P. Heszler

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Excimer laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was performed at atmospheric pressure in an N2 and in an air ambient. During the ablation, nanoparticles condensed from the material ejecta, and their size distribution was monitored in the gas phase by a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) in combination with a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). Size distributions obtained at different laser repetition rates revealed that the interaction between subsequent laser pulses and formed particles became significant above ∼ 15 Hz. This interaction resulted in laser heating, leading to considerable evaporation and a decrease in the size of the particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that approximately 8% nitrogen was incorporated into the CNx particles generated in the N2 ambient, and that the nitrogen was mostly bonded to sp3 -hybridized carbon. Monodisperse particles were also deposited and were analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy to monitor size-induced effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)537-542
Number of pages6
JournalApplied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2004


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)

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