The active transport of iodide into the thyroid is mediated by the Na+- I- symporter (NIS), an intrinsic membrane protein. NIS plays key roles in thyroid pathophysiology as the route by which I- reaches the gland for thyroid hormone biosynthesis, and as a means for diagnostic scintigraphic imaging and for radioiodide therapy in thyroid cancer. The molecular characterization of NIS started with the isolation in 1996 of a cDNA encoding rat NIS, and has subsequently led to a virtually new field in thyroidology. The research reviewed in this article clearly has far-reaching implications in the areas of structure/function of transport proteins, thyroid pathophysiology, hormone action mechanisms, cell differentiation and cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism