Adipose tissue cells express and secrete numerous proteins influencing the signal transduction pathways of insulin receptor by auto-, para- and endocrine manner. Several cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and its soluble receptor forms, sTNFR1 and sTNFR2, resistin, retinol-binding protein 4, plasminogen activator inhibitor, lipocain 1 inhibit the signalization of insulin receptor causing insulin resistance in target tissues, mainly in adipose, liver and muscle, brain, endothelial as well as in pancreatic β-cells. However, many other proteins produced by the fat tissue, such as adiponectin, visfatin, vaspin, apelin, omentin and chemerin enhance the signal transmission of the receptor. Recently discovered common mechanisms leading to insulin and cytokine resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, e.g. protein family of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are also discussed.
|Translated title of the contribution||Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus|
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 1 2009|
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