Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of fludarabine and cladribine resistance in a human promyelocytic cell line

Emma Månsson, T. Spasokoukotskaja, Jan Sällström, Staffan Eriksson, Freidoun Albertioni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

64 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

2F-Adenine arabinoside (fludarabine, Fara-A) and 2-chloro-2'- deoxyadenosine (cladribine, CdA) are nucleoside analogues with antineoplastic activity in vitro and in vivo. Lack of clinical resistance between CdA and Fara-A has been demonstrated in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (G. Juliusson et al., N. Engl. J. Med., 327: 1056-1061, 1992). To clarify the differences in mechanism of resistance to CdA and Fara-A in vitro, we developed two stable, resistant cell lines, HL60/CdA and HL60/Fara-A, by exposure to increasing concentrations of analogues over a period of 8 months. Resistant cells tolerated >8000 and 5-fold higher concentrations of CdA and Fara-A, respectively. The specific activity of the nucleoside phosphorylating enzyme (using deoxycytidine as substrate) in cell extracts from HL60/CdA and HL60/Fara-A mutants was about 10 and 60%, respectively, compared with the parental cell line. Western blot analysis using a polyclonal antibody showed no detectable deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) protein in CdA-resistant cells, whereas in Fara-A-resistant cells, it was at the same level as in the parental cells. The mitochondrial enzyme deoxyguanosine kinase was not altered in resistant cell lines. The HL60/CdA cells showed cross-resistance to 2-chloro-2'-arabino-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine, Fara-A, arabinofuranosyl cytosine, difluorodeoxyguanosine, and difluorodeoxycytidine toxicity, most likely because of the decreased phosphorylation of these analogues by dCK. Using real-time quantitative PCR, the mRNA levels of dCK and cytosolic 5'- nucleotidase (5'-NT), a major nucleoside dephosphorylating enzyme, were measured. It was shown that the dCK mRNA levels in both CdA- and Fara-A resistant cells were decreased in parallel with the activity. The expression of 5'-NT mRNA was not significantly elevated in CdA- and Fara-A resistant cells, as compared with the parental cells. Ribonucleotide reductase maintains a balanced supply of deoxynucleotide triphosphate pools in the cell and may also be a major cellular target for CdA and Fara-A nucleotides. Except for the deoxycytidine triphosphate level, the intracellular deoxynucleotide triphosphate pools were significantly higher in Fara-A- resistant cells compared with the parental cell line. This might be a consequence of mutation or altered regulation of ribonucleotide reductase activity and may explain the 2-5-fold cross-resistance to several nucleoside analogues observed with HL60/Fara-A cells. It is likely that the resistance for CdA was mainly attributable to a dCK deficiency, and Fara-A-resistant cells might have another contributing factor to the resistance beyond the dCK deficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5956-5963
Number of pages8
JournalCancer Research
Volume59
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 1999

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Cladribine
Deoxycytidine Kinase
Cell Line
Nucleosides
Ribonucleotide Reductases
5'-Nucleotidase
deoxyguanosine kinase
Messenger RNA
fludarabine
Enzymes
Vidarabine
Deoxycytidine
R Factors
HL-60 Cells
Cytosine
B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Cell Extracts
Antineoplastic Agents
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Nucleotides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Cite this

Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of fludarabine and cladribine resistance in a human promyelocytic cell line. / Månsson, Emma; Spasokoukotskaja, T.; Sällström, Jan; Eriksson, Staffan; Albertioni, Freidoun.

In: Cancer Research, Vol. 59, No. 23, 01.12.1999, p. 5956-5963.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Månsson, E, Spasokoukotskaja, T, Sällström, J, Eriksson, S & Albertioni, F 1999, 'Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of fludarabine and cladribine resistance in a human promyelocytic cell line', Cancer Research, vol. 59, no. 23, pp. 5956-5963.
Månsson, Emma ; Spasokoukotskaja, T. ; Sällström, Jan ; Eriksson, Staffan ; Albertioni, Freidoun. / Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of fludarabine and cladribine resistance in a human promyelocytic cell line. In: Cancer Research. 1999 ; Vol. 59, No. 23. pp. 5956-5963.
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abstract = "2F-Adenine arabinoside (fludarabine, Fara-A) and 2-chloro-2'- deoxyadenosine (cladribine, CdA) are nucleoside analogues with antineoplastic activity in vitro and in vivo. Lack of clinical resistance between CdA and Fara-A has been demonstrated in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (G. Juliusson et al., N. Engl. J. Med., 327: 1056-1061, 1992). To clarify the differences in mechanism of resistance to CdA and Fara-A in vitro, we developed two stable, resistant cell lines, HL60/CdA and HL60/Fara-A, by exposure to increasing concentrations of analogues over a period of 8 months. Resistant cells tolerated >8000 and 5-fold higher concentrations of CdA and Fara-A, respectively. The specific activity of the nucleoside phosphorylating enzyme (using deoxycytidine as substrate) in cell extracts from HL60/CdA and HL60/Fara-A mutants was about 10 and 60{\%}, respectively, compared with the parental cell line. Western blot analysis using a polyclonal antibody showed no detectable deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) protein in CdA-resistant cells, whereas in Fara-A-resistant cells, it was at the same level as in the parental cells. The mitochondrial enzyme deoxyguanosine kinase was not altered in resistant cell lines. The HL60/CdA cells showed cross-resistance to 2-chloro-2'-arabino-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine, Fara-A, arabinofuranosyl cytosine, difluorodeoxyguanosine, and difluorodeoxycytidine toxicity, most likely because of the decreased phosphorylation of these analogues by dCK. Using real-time quantitative PCR, the mRNA levels of dCK and cytosolic 5'- nucleotidase (5'-NT), a major nucleoside dephosphorylating enzyme, were measured. It was shown that the dCK mRNA levels in both CdA- and Fara-A resistant cells were decreased in parallel with the activity. The expression of 5'-NT mRNA was not significantly elevated in CdA- and Fara-A resistant cells, as compared with the parental cells. Ribonucleotide reductase maintains a balanced supply of deoxynucleotide triphosphate pools in the cell and may also be a major cellular target for CdA and Fara-A nucleotides. Except for the deoxycytidine triphosphate level, the intracellular deoxynucleotide triphosphate pools were significantly higher in Fara-A- resistant cells compared with the parental cell line. This might be a consequence of mutation or altered regulation of ribonucleotide reductase activity and may explain the 2-5-fold cross-resistance to several nucleoside analogues observed with HL60/Fara-A cells. It is likely that the resistance for CdA was mainly attributable to a dCK deficiency, and Fara-A-resistant cells might have another contributing factor to the resistance beyond the dCK deficiency.",
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T1 - Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of fludarabine and cladribine resistance in a human promyelocytic cell line

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N2 - 2F-Adenine arabinoside (fludarabine, Fara-A) and 2-chloro-2'- deoxyadenosine (cladribine, CdA) are nucleoside analogues with antineoplastic activity in vitro and in vivo. Lack of clinical resistance between CdA and Fara-A has been demonstrated in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (G. Juliusson et al., N. Engl. J. Med., 327: 1056-1061, 1992). To clarify the differences in mechanism of resistance to CdA and Fara-A in vitro, we developed two stable, resistant cell lines, HL60/CdA and HL60/Fara-A, by exposure to increasing concentrations of analogues over a period of 8 months. Resistant cells tolerated >8000 and 5-fold higher concentrations of CdA and Fara-A, respectively. The specific activity of the nucleoside phosphorylating enzyme (using deoxycytidine as substrate) in cell extracts from HL60/CdA and HL60/Fara-A mutants was about 10 and 60%, respectively, compared with the parental cell line. Western blot analysis using a polyclonal antibody showed no detectable deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) protein in CdA-resistant cells, whereas in Fara-A-resistant cells, it was at the same level as in the parental cells. The mitochondrial enzyme deoxyguanosine kinase was not altered in resistant cell lines. The HL60/CdA cells showed cross-resistance to 2-chloro-2'-arabino-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine, Fara-A, arabinofuranosyl cytosine, difluorodeoxyguanosine, and difluorodeoxycytidine toxicity, most likely because of the decreased phosphorylation of these analogues by dCK. Using real-time quantitative PCR, the mRNA levels of dCK and cytosolic 5'- nucleotidase (5'-NT), a major nucleoside dephosphorylating enzyme, were measured. It was shown that the dCK mRNA levels in both CdA- and Fara-A resistant cells were decreased in parallel with the activity. The expression of 5'-NT mRNA was not significantly elevated in CdA- and Fara-A resistant cells, as compared with the parental cells. Ribonucleotide reductase maintains a balanced supply of deoxynucleotide triphosphate pools in the cell and may also be a major cellular target for CdA and Fara-A nucleotides. Except for the deoxycytidine triphosphate level, the intracellular deoxynucleotide triphosphate pools were significantly higher in Fara-A- resistant cells compared with the parental cell line. This might be a consequence of mutation or altered regulation of ribonucleotide reductase activity and may explain the 2-5-fold cross-resistance to several nucleoside analogues observed with HL60/Fara-A cells. It is likely that the resistance for CdA was mainly attributable to a dCK deficiency, and Fara-A-resistant cells might have another contributing factor to the resistance beyond the dCK deficiency.

AB - 2F-Adenine arabinoside (fludarabine, Fara-A) and 2-chloro-2'- deoxyadenosine (cladribine, CdA) are nucleoside analogues with antineoplastic activity in vitro and in vivo. Lack of clinical resistance between CdA and Fara-A has been demonstrated in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (G. Juliusson et al., N. Engl. J. Med., 327: 1056-1061, 1992). To clarify the differences in mechanism of resistance to CdA and Fara-A in vitro, we developed two stable, resistant cell lines, HL60/CdA and HL60/Fara-A, by exposure to increasing concentrations of analogues over a period of 8 months. Resistant cells tolerated >8000 and 5-fold higher concentrations of CdA and Fara-A, respectively. The specific activity of the nucleoside phosphorylating enzyme (using deoxycytidine as substrate) in cell extracts from HL60/CdA and HL60/Fara-A mutants was about 10 and 60%, respectively, compared with the parental cell line. Western blot analysis using a polyclonal antibody showed no detectable deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) protein in CdA-resistant cells, whereas in Fara-A-resistant cells, it was at the same level as in the parental cells. The mitochondrial enzyme deoxyguanosine kinase was not altered in resistant cell lines. The HL60/CdA cells showed cross-resistance to 2-chloro-2'-arabino-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine, Fara-A, arabinofuranosyl cytosine, difluorodeoxyguanosine, and difluorodeoxycytidine toxicity, most likely because of the decreased phosphorylation of these analogues by dCK. Using real-time quantitative PCR, the mRNA levels of dCK and cytosolic 5'- nucleotidase (5'-NT), a major nucleoside dephosphorylating enzyme, were measured. It was shown that the dCK mRNA levels in both CdA- and Fara-A resistant cells were decreased in parallel with the activity. The expression of 5'-NT mRNA was not significantly elevated in CdA- and Fara-A resistant cells, as compared with the parental cells. Ribonucleotide reductase maintains a balanced supply of deoxynucleotide triphosphate pools in the cell and may also be a major cellular target for CdA and Fara-A nucleotides. Except for the deoxycytidine triphosphate level, the intracellular deoxynucleotide triphosphate pools were significantly higher in Fara-A- resistant cells compared with the parental cell line. This might be a consequence of mutation or altered regulation of ribonucleotide reductase activity and may explain the 2-5-fold cross-resistance to several nucleoside analogues observed with HL60/Fara-A cells. It is likely that the resistance for CdA was mainly attributable to a dCK deficiency, and Fara-A-resistant cells might have another contributing factor to the resistance beyond the dCK deficiency.

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