The greatest grapevine cultivar collection of Hungary is maintained by the Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology, Pécs, consisting of about one hundred cultivars indigenous in the Carpathian Basin. Our objective is to set up a new system applicable for characterization of these cultivars, which can be basic breeding material, genetic source, and the same time some of them are still registered cultivars. Based on international results we are looking for molecular markers by means of testing RAPD, SCAR, and microsatellite primers. The aim of our investigations: Achievement of cultivar-specific molecular characterization Determination of origin and genetic distance of the cultivars For this purpose the following methods are being used: Revealing polymorphism by RAPD and AP-PCR method Converting RAPD fragments into SCAR markers Determination of microsatellite DNA fingerprints of the ancient cultivars of the Carpathian Basin. Microsatellite analyses are being carried out - on the one hand with the primer combinations recommended by the GENRES CT96 No 81 EU project based on multilocal examinations, proving that altogether 6 primer pairs can differentiate the European cultivars at the molecular level on the basis of number and size of alleles. On the other hand other microsatellite primer sequences available from databases (e.g. Greek Database) or from publications are also being tested. RAPD primers resulting in length polymorphism are candidates for cultivar-specific marker development. Microsatellite primers including the scu10vv, VVMD5, VVMD21, VVMD27, VVMD 28, VrZag64, VrZag79 produced amplification products of various number (1-6) in the cultivars indigenous in the Carpathian Basin.