Endothelial cell-leukocyte interactions involve multiple cell adhesion molecules acting in a programmed and sequential manner to create a leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion cascade. To understand this process fully, in vivo models are needed. To accomplish this, we have transplanted pieces of normal human tissues onto immunodeficient mice to create chimeric animals. In one model, human skin is grafted and closely resembles normal skin histologically. The grafts retain their human vasculature and show low baseline expression of E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. After intradermal injection of human cytokines, these cell adhesion molecules are markedly upregulated and an active inflammatory reaction ensues, with migration of murine leukocytes. Intravenous injection of an antihuman E-selectin antibody completely inhibits leukocyte accumulation induced by tumor necrosis factor-α but only partially inhibits leukotriene B4-induced inflammation. In a second model, human bronchus was successfully transplanted heterotopically into severe combined immunodeficient mice. Injection of tumor necrosis factor induced upregulation of E-selectin, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the submucosal microvessels, with slightly different kinetics than in the skin. In conclusion, human-severe combined immunodeficient chimeric mice represent a useful model system to study the regulation and function of human cell adhesion molecules in an in vivo setting.
- Cell adhesion molecules
- mouse models
- severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy