Modification of the kaolinite hydroxyl surfaces through the application of pressure and temperature, Part III

Ray L. Frost, Janos Kristof, Elisabeth Horvath, J. Theo Kloprogge

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26 Citations (Scopus)


Kaolinite hydroxyl surfaces have been modified by the combined application of heat and pressure in the presence of water at 120°C and 2 bars and at 220°C and 20 bars. X-ray diffraction shows that some of the layers are expanded. It is hypothesized that this expansion occurs at the edges of the crystals due to the intercalation of water. The X-ray diffraction data is supported by diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, with additional hydroxyl stretching bands observed around 3550 and 3590 cm- 1. These bands are attributed to adsorbed water and to edge-intercalated water. Additional bands are observed in the hydroxyl deformation region around 895 and 877 cm-1. The position of these bands depends on the defect structure of the kaolinite and the conditions under which the kaolinite was thermally treated. Additional water bending vibrations were observed at 1651 and 1623 cm-1 for the thermally treated high-defect kaolinite and at 1682 and 1610 cm-1 for the low-defect kaolinite. The bands at 1651 and 1682 cm- 1 are attributed to the bending modes of water coordinated to the kaolinite surface. The role of water in the edge intercalation of water in the high- and low-defect kaolinites is apparently different.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)380-388
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of colloid and interface science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 15 1999


  • Defect structures
  • Effect of pressure
  • Effect of temperature increase
  • Hydroxyls
  • Infrared spectroscopy
  • Kaolinite surfaces
  • Water structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry

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