Modes of occurrences of scandium in Greek bauxite and bauxite residue

Johannes Vind, Annelies Malfliet, Chiara Bonomi, Päärn Paiste, I. Sajó, Bart Blanpain, Alan H. Tkaczyk, Vicky Vassiliadou, Dimitrios Panias

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Bauxite and bauxite residue, a by-product of alumina production, were studied using a combination of microanalytical techniques — electron microprobe wavelength dispersive spectrometry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The aim of the work was to reveal the modes of occurrence of scandium (Sc). The motivation behind this effort was to provide mineralogical insight for the support of ongoing development of Sc extraction technologies from bauxite residue. In the analyzed bauxites and residue, Sc is mainly hosted in hematite, where Sc3+ probably substitutes Fe3+. The average concentration of Sc in the hematite matrix of bauxite is about 200 mg/kg, while in the bulk sample it ranges from 42 to 53 mg/kg Sc. In bauxite residue, the average concentration of Sc in hematite matrix is about 170 mg/kg, and in the bulk sample it is 98 mg/kg. In bauxite residue, goethite was also identified to host Sc with a concentration of about two times more than in hematite — 330 mg/kg. In bauxite residue, hematite, goethite and zircon host respectively 55 ± 20%, 25 ± 20% and 10 ± 5% of the total Sc. The effect of the Bayer process to the modes of occurrences of Sc is minor. The secondary bauxite residue minerals formed during bauxite processing do not capture any or capture very low amounts of Sc. New evidences of Sc leaching behavior from bauxite residue show that Sc is first released from goethite, then from hematite and the unrecovered proportion of Sc is likely associated with zircon.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35-48
Number of pages14
JournalMinerals Engineering
Volume123
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2018

Fingerprint

Scandium
scandium
Aluminum Oxide
bauxite
Hematite
hematite
goethite
Zircon
zircon
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
matrix
Raman spectroscopy
Laser ablation

Keywords

  • Bauxite residue
  • Bayer process
  • Goethite
  • Hematite
  • Karst bauxite
  • Red mud
  • Scandium
  • Zircon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Vind, J., Malfliet, A., Bonomi, C., Paiste, P., Sajó, I., Blanpain, B., ... Panias, D. (2018). Modes of occurrences of scandium in Greek bauxite and bauxite residue. Minerals Engineering, 123, 35-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2018.04.025

Modes of occurrences of scandium in Greek bauxite and bauxite residue. / Vind, Johannes; Malfliet, Annelies; Bonomi, Chiara; Paiste, Päärn; Sajó, I.; Blanpain, Bart; Tkaczyk, Alan H.; Vassiliadou, Vicky; Panias, Dimitrios.

In: Minerals Engineering, Vol. 123, 01.07.2018, p. 35-48.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vind, J, Malfliet, A, Bonomi, C, Paiste, P, Sajó, I, Blanpain, B, Tkaczyk, AH, Vassiliadou, V & Panias, D 2018, 'Modes of occurrences of scandium in Greek bauxite and bauxite residue', Minerals Engineering, vol. 123, pp. 35-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2018.04.025
Vind, Johannes ; Malfliet, Annelies ; Bonomi, Chiara ; Paiste, Päärn ; Sajó, I. ; Blanpain, Bart ; Tkaczyk, Alan H. ; Vassiliadou, Vicky ; Panias, Dimitrios. / Modes of occurrences of scandium in Greek bauxite and bauxite residue. In: Minerals Engineering. 2018 ; Vol. 123. pp. 35-48.
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abstract = "Bauxite and bauxite residue, a by-product of alumina production, were studied using a combination of microanalytical techniques — electron microprobe wavelength dispersive spectrometry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The aim of the work was to reveal the modes of occurrence of scandium (Sc). The motivation behind this effort was to provide mineralogical insight for the support of ongoing development of Sc extraction technologies from bauxite residue. In the analyzed bauxites and residue, Sc is mainly hosted in hematite, where Sc3+ probably substitutes Fe3+. The average concentration of Sc in the hematite matrix of bauxite is about 200 mg/kg, while in the bulk sample it ranges from 42 to 53 mg/kg Sc. In bauxite residue, the average concentration of Sc in hematite matrix is about 170 mg/kg, and in the bulk sample it is 98 mg/kg. In bauxite residue, goethite was also identified to host Sc with a concentration of about two times more than in hematite — 330 mg/kg. In bauxite residue, hematite, goethite and zircon host respectively 55 ± 20{\%}, 25 ± 20{\%} and 10 ± 5{\%} of the total Sc. The effect of the Bayer process to the modes of occurrences of Sc is minor. The secondary bauxite residue minerals formed during bauxite processing do not capture any or capture very low amounts of Sc. New evidences of Sc leaching behavior from bauxite residue show that Sc is first released from goethite, then from hematite and the unrecovered proportion of Sc is likely associated with zircon.",
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AU - Malfliet, Annelies

AU - Bonomi, Chiara

AU - Paiste, Päärn

AU - Sajó, I.

AU - Blanpain, Bart

AU - Tkaczyk, Alan H.

AU - Vassiliadou, Vicky

AU - Panias, Dimitrios

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N2 - Bauxite and bauxite residue, a by-product of alumina production, were studied using a combination of microanalytical techniques — electron microprobe wavelength dispersive spectrometry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The aim of the work was to reveal the modes of occurrence of scandium (Sc). The motivation behind this effort was to provide mineralogical insight for the support of ongoing development of Sc extraction technologies from bauxite residue. In the analyzed bauxites and residue, Sc is mainly hosted in hematite, where Sc3+ probably substitutes Fe3+. The average concentration of Sc in the hematite matrix of bauxite is about 200 mg/kg, while in the bulk sample it ranges from 42 to 53 mg/kg Sc. In bauxite residue, the average concentration of Sc in hematite matrix is about 170 mg/kg, and in the bulk sample it is 98 mg/kg. In bauxite residue, goethite was also identified to host Sc with a concentration of about two times more than in hematite — 330 mg/kg. In bauxite residue, hematite, goethite and zircon host respectively 55 ± 20%, 25 ± 20% and 10 ± 5% of the total Sc. The effect of the Bayer process to the modes of occurrences of Sc is minor. The secondary bauxite residue minerals formed during bauxite processing do not capture any or capture very low amounts of Sc. New evidences of Sc leaching behavior from bauxite residue show that Sc is first released from goethite, then from hematite and the unrecovered proportion of Sc is likely associated with zircon.

AB - Bauxite and bauxite residue, a by-product of alumina production, were studied using a combination of microanalytical techniques — electron microprobe wavelength dispersive spectrometry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The aim of the work was to reveal the modes of occurrence of scandium (Sc). The motivation behind this effort was to provide mineralogical insight for the support of ongoing development of Sc extraction technologies from bauxite residue. In the analyzed bauxites and residue, Sc is mainly hosted in hematite, where Sc3+ probably substitutes Fe3+. The average concentration of Sc in the hematite matrix of bauxite is about 200 mg/kg, while in the bulk sample it ranges from 42 to 53 mg/kg Sc. In bauxite residue, the average concentration of Sc in hematite matrix is about 170 mg/kg, and in the bulk sample it is 98 mg/kg. In bauxite residue, goethite was also identified to host Sc with a concentration of about two times more than in hematite — 330 mg/kg. In bauxite residue, hematite, goethite and zircon host respectively 55 ± 20%, 25 ± 20% and 10 ± 5% of the total Sc. The effect of the Bayer process to the modes of occurrences of Sc is minor. The secondary bauxite residue minerals formed during bauxite processing do not capture any or capture very low amounts of Sc. New evidences of Sc leaching behavior from bauxite residue show that Sc is first released from goethite, then from hematite and the unrecovered proportion of Sc is likely associated with zircon.

KW - Bauxite residue

KW - Bayer process

KW - Goethite

KW - Hematite

KW - Karst bauxite

KW - Red mud

KW - Scandium

KW - Zircon

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