In the last four decades breast-conserving surgery followed by whole breast irradiation has become the standard of care for the treatment of early-stage (0-I-II) breast carcinoma. With the advent of breast-screening, incidence of breast carcinomas with more favorable prognostic characteristics has increased significantly. This change in the prognostic profile of newly diagnosed breast cancers opened a new horizon for clinical research seeking for individual risk-adapted protocols of breast cancer radiotherapy. Several groups have been tested the efficacy of accelerated (partial or whole) breast irradiation, which has become the new treatment paradigm in the radiotherapy of early-stage breast cancers. Furthermore, others have attempted to identify subgroups of patients for whom radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery could be safely omitted. Recently molecular gene expression assays have emerged as promising prognostic and predictive markers for local recurrence. This article reviews the results of these studies focusing on individual risk-adapted radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for patients with early-stage breast carcinoma. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 45-55.
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