In this chapter we review past and current experimental approaches to measuring the long-range interaction between atoms and surfaces, the so-called Casimir-Polder force. These experiments demonstrate the importance of going beyond the perfect conductor approximation and stipulate the relevance of the Dzyaloshinskii-Lifshitz-Pitaevskii theory. We discuss recent generalizations of that theory, that include higher multipole polarizabilities, and present a list of additional effects, that may become important in future Casimir-Polder experiments. Among the latter, we see great potential for spectroscopic techniques, atom interferometry, and the manipulation of ultra-cold quantum matter (e.g. BEC) near surfaces. We address approaches based on quantum reflection and discuss the atomic beam spin-echo experiment as a particular example. Finally, some of the advantages of Casimir-Polder techniques in comparison to Casimir force measurements between macroscopic bodies are presented.