Today, as a result of the complex and coordinated medical treatment of breast malignancies the long-term survival rate reaches 80%. Modern breast surgery plays a prominent role in the multidisciplinary treatment of breast tumors. Breast surgery in the 21st century simultaneously performs medical and aesthetic procedures on the same organ. Modern day breast surgery is founded on a complex view of breast malignancies, multidisciplinary cooperation, oncoplastic practice, and selecting the optimal surgery techniques, based on state of the art tools and a detailed treatment plan. Authors present the evolution of modern breast surgery; discuss the procedures such as mastectomy, breast conservation surgery, axillary lymph node removal, prophylactic mastectomy, as well as possible versions of immediate or delayed breast reconstruction.
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