As an introduction, data characteristic for the effective sow management have been listed (Table 1). Comparison of optimum and Hungarian average data has shown that the number of ready fatteners/year can significantly be increased. It has been pointed out that the modern types have an intensive growth but slow maturation, i.e. a gilt are ready for mating at the age of 8 to 9 months with a bodymass of 120 kg. It is advisable to inseminate them at that age, during the third heat. The rearing should be characterized by moderate, moderately intensive and restricted periods (Table 2). Flushing feeding scheme can increase the number of ovulated ova. Feeds of breeding animals should be richer in fibre and poorer in energy than those of fatteners. In spite of the former technologies, increased daily ration for pregnant sows should be given only up to the end of heat. Between the 2nd and 90th days of pregnancy, the demands of the embryonic development is low. As a result of overfeeding, the farrowing will be prolonged, incidence of MMA syndrome is significantly higher and the appetite of fatty sows will be less during lactation (Fig. 1). Intake of energy should be increased during the last 3 to 4 weeks of pregnancy. Effective agent supply of pregnant sows influences the vitality of piglets to be born. Thus, lack of iodine supply may cause congenital goiter, the vitamin A deficiency increases the number of stillborn piglets. Daily milk production of lactating sows is 5 to 8 kg. An average 15% body-mass loose can be considered physiological during lactation. Calcium and phosphorous balances of lactating sows are negative (Fig. 2). If calcium and phosphorous supply is poor during pregnancy, the lactating sow answering by a diminished milk production. Feeding of breeding sows can be planed according to the Fig. 3 and Table 4. Daily ration should be modified according to the given condition of the sow. The breeding condition can be estimated by the method of the Cornell University (Fig. 4 and Table 5). Fibre supply of pregnant sows (8 to 9%) is important from many respects. During lactation, the sows should supply above the subsistent daily ration an extra 400 g sow feed pro suckling piglet, however the total amount should not exceed 5 kg. Ad libitum feeding is only admissible in case of necessity. Feed enriched with fat fed during the late period of pregnancy and lactation may increase the number of piglets born and their survival ratio. Feeding compositions shown in Tables 6 and 7 give aid for the practical feeding of sows. Energy demand of resting boars is only 15% higher than the subsistent demand. A slight protein surplus increases the metabolism, however a higher protein intake increases the urea level of blood. A part of protein should be of animal origin. From the point of view of sperm production and conservation, vitamin E, selenium and vitamin C are the most important. Table 8 contains the demands of boars while Table 9 contains the feed compositions. The daily ration should be harmonized with the condition of the boar (3 kg daily, on an average). In case of both sows and boars, an extra attention should be paid for the zinc and biotin supply ensuring the adequate condition of hoofs for a lack of which paronychia (pododermatitis) will develop.
|Translated title of the contribution||Modern aspects for feeding breeding pigs. Review article|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 1996|
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