A review of experimental and theoretical studies of the formation and growth of clusters in solutions of fullerenes is given. General problems of fullerene cluster formation in solutions are considered. The main directions and goals of studies are specified. The experimental data on solutions with various polarities obtained by various methods, including visible and UV spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, etc., are generalized. The conditions of cluster formation and mechanism of cluster stabilization and the role played by clusters in certain effects observed in the corresponding systems are discussed. Cluster growth models are considered on the basis of nucleation theory for solutions of fullerenes with various polarities. It is shown that the description of the observed cluster state requires modification of the kinetic equations of the classic approach using the drop model of clusters. Modified kinetic equations with corrections for the mechanism of cluster stabilization are used to analyze cluster growth and related phenomena.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry