Modeling pan evaporation using Gaussian Process Regression K-Nearest Neighbors Random Forest and support vector machines; comparative analysis

Sevda Shabani, Saeed Samadianfard, Mohammad Taghi Sattari, Amir Mosavi, Shahaboddin Shamshirband, Tibor Kmet, Annamária R. Várkonyi-Kóczy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Evaporation is a very important process; it is one of the most critical factors in agricultural, hydrological, and meteorological studies. Due to the interactions of multiple climatic factors, evaporation is considered as a complex and nonlinear phenomenon to model. Thus, machine learning methods have gained popularity in this realm. In the present study, four machine learning methods of Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Regression (SVR) were used to predict the pan evaporation (PE). Meteorological data including PE, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), wind speed (W), and sunny hours (S) collected from 2011 through 2017. The accuracy of the studied methods was determined using the statistical indices of Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (R) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE). Furthermore, the Taylor charts utilized for evaluating the accuracy of the mentioned models. The results of this study showed that at Gonbad-e Kavus, Gorgan and Bandar Torkman stations, GPR with RMSE of 1.521 mm/day, 1.244 mm/day, and 1.254 mm/day, KNN with RMSE of 1.991 mm/day, 1.775 mm/day, and 1.577 mm/day, RF with RMSE of 1.614 mm/day, 1.337 mm/day, and 1.316 mm/day, and SVR with RMSE of 1.55 mm/day, 1.262 mm/day, and 1.275 mm/day had more appropriate performances in estimating PE values. It was found that GPR for Gonbad-e Kavus Station with input parameters of T, W and S and GPR for Gorgan and Bandar Torkmen stations with input parameters of T, RH, W and S had the most accurate predictions and were proposed for precise estimation of PE. The findings of the current study indicated that the PE values may be accurately estimated with few easily measured meteorological parameters.

Original languageEnglish
Article number66
JournalAtmosphere
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2020

Keywords

  • Advanced statistical analysis
  • Big data
  • Hydroinformatics
  • Hydrological cycle
  • Machine learning
  • Meteorological parameters
  • Pan evaporation
  • Random Forest (RF)
  • Support Vector Regression (SVR)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)

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