Mobilization of phenolic antioxidants from grape, apple and pitahaya residues via solid state fungal fermentation and carbohydrase treatment

Carolina Zambrano, Alexandra Kotogán, Ottó Bencsik, T. Papp, C. Vágvölgyi, Keshab C. Mondal, Judit Krisch, Miklós Takó

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper reports two strategies to mobilize phenolic antioxidants from lyophilized and oven-dried black grape (Vitis vinifera x (Vitis labrusca x Vitis riparia)) pomace, and apple (Malus domestica cv. Jonagold) and yellow pitahaya (Hylocereus megalanthus) peel, core, peduncle and seed mixtures: a solid-state Rhizomucor miehei NRRL 5282 fermentation-based process and a carbohydrate-cleaving enzyme treatment using R. miehei NRRL 5282 cellulase and Aspergillus niger pectinase cocktails. Both methods proved to be suitable to increase the extractable phenolic content and improve the antioxidant properties of the phenolics as determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical inhibition or ferric reducing antioxidant power analyses. During solid-state fermentation, maximal phenolic yields obtained in lyophilized grape, apple and pitahaya residues were 1956 ± 31, 477 ± 37 and 495 ± 27 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g dry matter (DM), respectively, while they were 1385 ± 71, 362 ± 27 and 615 ± 26 mg GAE/100 g DM in oven-dried samples, respectively. The major individual phenolics produced enzymatically from the substrates were identified by HPLC as gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin, with yields ranging from 0.58 ± 0.06 to 215.81 ± 17.17 mg/100 g DM depending on the substrate and the pretreatment. The obtained phenolic-enriched extracts could potentially be applicable as sources of natural antioxidants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)457-465
Number of pages9
JournalLWT - Food Science and Technology
Volume89
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2018

Fingerprint

Vitis
Malus
Fermentation
grapes
Antioxidants
apples
gallic acid
Gallic Acid
fermentation
Rhizomucor miehei
antioxidants
ovens
Catechin
Hylocereus
Vitis riparia
Vitis labrusca
seed mixtures
pomace
Rhizomucor
vanillic acid

Keywords

  • Cellulase
  • Fruit byproducts treatment
  • Pectinase
  • Phenolic compounds
  • Rhizomucor miehei

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

Cite this

Mobilization of phenolic antioxidants from grape, apple and pitahaya residues via solid state fungal fermentation and carbohydrase treatment. / Zambrano, Carolina; Kotogán, Alexandra; Bencsik, Ottó; Papp, T.; Vágvölgyi, C.; Mondal, Keshab C.; Krisch, Judit; Takó, Miklós.

In: LWT - Food Science and Technology, Vol. 89, 01.03.2018, p. 457-465.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zambrano, Carolina ; Kotogán, Alexandra ; Bencsik, Ottó ; Papp, T. ; Vágvölgyi, C. ; Mondal, Keshab C. ; Krisch, Judit ; Takó, Miklós. / Mobilization of phenolic antioxidants from grape, apple and pitahaya residues via solid state fungal fermentation and carbohydrase treatment. In: LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2018 ; Vol. 89. pp. 457-465.
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AU - Vágvölgyi, C.

AU - Mondal, Keshab C.

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AB - This paper reports two strategies to mobilize phenolic antioxidants from lyophilized and oven-dried black grape (Vitis vinifera x (Vitis labrusca x Vitis riparia)) pomace, and apple (Malus domestica cv. Jonagold) and yellow pitahaya (Hylocereus megalanthus) peel, core, peduncle and seed mixtures: a solid-state Rhizomucor miehei NRRL 5282 fermentation-based process and a carbohydrate-cleaving enzyme treatment using R. miehei NRRL 5282 cellulase and Aspergillus niger pectinase cocktails. Both methods proved to be suitable to increase the extractable phenolic content and improve the antioxidant properties of the phenolics as determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical inhibition or ferric reducing antioxidant power analyses. During solid-state fermentation, maximal phenolic yields obtained in lyophilized grape, apple and pitahaya residues were 1956 ± 31, 477 ± 37 and 495 ± 27 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g dry matter (DM), respectively, while they were 1385 ± 71, 362 ± 27 and 615 ± 26 mg GAE/100 g DM in oven-dried samples, respectively. The major individual phenolics produced enzymatically from the substrates were identified by HPLC as gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin, with yields ranging from 0.58 ± 0.06 to 215.81 ± 17.17 mg/100 g DM depending on the substrate and the pretreatment. The obtained phenolic-enriched extracts could potentially be applicable as sources of natural antioxidants.

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