Miocene maar/diatreme volcanism at the Tihany Peninsula (Pannonian Basin): The Tihany Volcano

Károly Németh, Ulrike Martin, S. Harangi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Tihany Volcano (TV) represents one of the earliest (6-7.5 Ma) volcanic products of post-extensional alkaline basaltic volcanism in the Pannonian Basin, eastern Central Europe. It is a complex volcano located in the Balaton Highland. Volcanic activity began with explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions followed by magmatic explosive events. There is no evidence of any lava flows. The explosive volcanic activity is characterized by loss of mechanical energy due to the continuously decreasing water/magma ratio. Eruption of basaltic magma could have been enhanced by activation of NW-SE and N-S trending faults. The rising basaltic magma interacted with variable amounts of groundwater and possibly with a small amount of surface water resulting in initial hydrovolcanic explosive eruptions. During this stage, the interaction between magma and unconsolidated, water-saturated sediment was the major control of the explosions. Wet base surge and fall deposits, with large amounts of deep excavated lithic fragments, dominate the early volcanic successions. These are interpreted as products of a new type of maar/diatreme volcanism. The occurrence of large amounts of country rock and matrix-supported, massive beds indicates that phreatomagmatic eruptions were characterized by high mechanical energy and probably a continuous water supply from deep karst aquifers, during the main phase of the eruptive history. We propose that the explosive volcanic activity of Tihany occurred under subaerial conditions in a fluvial basin. The hydrovolcanic activity was followed by a Strombolian and minor Hawaiian magmatic explosive period, indicating a termination of water supply from the basement rocks. The Strombolian scoria cones were built up inside the tuff rings and spatter cones were developed in the northern part of the volcanic complex. Following the eruption, lacustrine deposition occurred in the local maar basins.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)349-377
Number of pages29
JournalActa Geologica Hungarica
Volume42
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1999

Fingerprint

maar
diatreme
explosive
volcanism
volcano
Miocene
volcanic eruption
magma
basin
water supply
lithic fragment
country rock
basement rock
tuff
lava flow
energy
karst
explosion
aquifer
surface water

Keywords

  • Diatreme
  • Explosive volcanism
  • Hydrovolcanic
  • Maar
  • Pannonian basin
  • Phreatomagmatic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology

Cite this

Miocene maar/diatreme volcanism at the Tihany Peninsula (Pannonian Basin) : The Tihany Volcano. / Németh, Károly; Martin, Ulrike; Harangi, S.

In: Acta Geologica Hungarica, Vol. 42, No. 4, 1999, p. 349-377.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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