Búza mutrágyázása a mezoföldi OMTK kísérletben 1968-2004 között

Translated title of the contribution: Mineral fertilisation of wheat in national long-term field experiments in the Mezoföld region of Hungary between 1968 and 2004

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A long-term mineral fertilisation experiment was set up in autumn 1967 as part of the National Long-term Mineral Fertilisation Trials (Code No. A-17) with 20 treatments and 4 replications (on a total of 80 plots) using a wheat-maize-maize-pea crop sequence. The present paper discusses the results of the 10 wheat experiments during the 37 experimental years between 1968 and 2004. The calcareous chernozem soil formed on loess contained around 5% CaCO 3, 3% humus and 20-22% clay in the ploughed layer, and was satisfactorily supplied with N and K, but had poor P supplies. The groundwater level was located at a depth of 13-15 m, and the area was classified as drought-sensitive, with a mean annual rainfall sum of 590 mm. Fertiliser was applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and 50% potassium chloride. The main results were as follows: 1. The grain yield of the control plots amounted to 1.2-3.8 t/ha, rising to 3.2-7.7 t/ha on plots with optimum NPK. treatment. Yield maxima were associated with N rates of 50-100 kg/ha/year and to ammonium lactate (AL)-soluble P2O5 and K2O contents of 15-200 mg/kg in the ploughed layer. 2. With pea as forecrop, wheat usually responded with a yield decline to N rates of over 50 kg/ha/year, when applied alone. The relative PK deficiency in these treatments increased over the years, as did the efficiency of PK fertilisation. Balanced NPK fertilisation was partly able to counteract the effects of drought, resulting in an improvement in water utilisation. 3. Fertiliser effects were time-dependent, due to changes in the composition and nutrient reserves of the soil. The ploughed layer of unfertilised plots became deficient in soluble P and K reserves, which was correlated with the increasing PK effects. The originally satisfactory AL-K2O content of 180-200 mg/kg dropped to 115 mg/kg over a period of nearly three decades, and the 60-80 mg/kg AL-P 2O5 content to 50 mg/kg. 4. The soluble PK reserves of the ploughed soil layer can be maintained by annual rates of 50-60 kg/ha P 2O5 and 100-150 kg/ha K2O, which approximately equal plant uptake. When P fertiliser was applied at 2-3 times the rate of plant uptake, the AL-P2O5 content of the topsoil became an order of magnitude greater.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)111-122
Number of pages12
JournalNovenytermeles
Volume54
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2005

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ammonium lactate
Hungary
minerals
wheat
fertilizers
peas
drought
calcium ammonium nitrate
uptake mechanisms
nutrient reserves
water utilization
corn
superphosphate
cropping sequence
potassium chloride
calcareous soils
loess
humus
topsoil
water table

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

Búza mutrágyázása a mezoföldi OMTK kísérletben 1968-2004 között. / Kádár, Imre; Márton, László.

In: Novenytermeles, Vol. 54, No. 1-2, 2005, p. 111-122.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "B{\'u}za mutr{\'a}gy{\'a}z{\'a}sa a mezof{\"o}ldi OMTK k{\'i}s{\'e}rletben 1968-2004 k{\"o}z{\"o}tt",
abstract = "A long-term mineral fertilisation experiment was set up in autumn 1967 as part of the National Long-term Mineral Fertilisation Trials (Code No. A-17) with 20 treatments and 4 replications (on a total of 80 plots) using a wheat-maize-maize-pea crop sequence. The present paper discusses the results of the 10 wheat experiments during the 37 experimental years between 1968 and 2004. The calcareous chernozem soil formed on loess contained around 5{\%} CaCO 3, 3{\%} humus and 20-22{\%} clay in the ploughed layer, and was satisfactorily supplied with N and K, but had poor P supplies. The groundwater level was located at a depth of 13-15 m, and the area was classified as drought-sensitive, with a mean annual rainfall sum of 590 mm. Fertiliser was applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and 50{\%} potassium chloride. The main results were as follows: 1. The grain yield of the control plots amounted to 1.2-3.8 t/ha, rising to 3.2-7.7 t/ha on plots with optimum NPK. treatment. Yield maxima were associated with N rates of 50-100 kg/ha/year and to ammonium lactate (AL)-soluble P2O5 and K2O contents of 15-200 mg/kg in the ploughed layer. 2. With pea as forecrop, wheat usually responded with a yield decline to N rates of over 50 kg/ha/year, when applied alone. The relative PK deficiency in these treatments increased over the years, as did the efficiency of PK fertilisation. Balanced NPK fertilisation was partly able to counteract the effects of drought, resulting in an improvement in water utilisation. 3. Fertiliser effects were time-dependent, due to changes in the composition and nutrient reserves of the soil. The ploughed layer of unfertilised plots became deficient in soluble P and K reserves, which was correlated with the increasing PK effects. The originally satisfactory AL-K2O content of 180-200 mg/kg dropped to 115 mg/kg over a period of nearly three decades, and the 60-80 mg/kg AL-P 2O5 content to 50 mg/kg. 4. The soluble PK reserves of the ploughed soil layer can be maintained by annual rates of 50-60 kg/ha P 2O5 and 100-150 kg/ha K2O, which approximately equal plant uptake. When P fertiliser was applied at 2-3 times the rate of plant uptake, the AL-P2O5 content of the topsoil became an order of magnitude greater.",
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