The effect of various N, P and K supply levels and their combinations on the development, yield, mineral composition and nutrient uptake of winter rye (cv. Lovászpatonai) was investigated in 1995 in the 22nd year of a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment set up on calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The experimental soil contained 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 and 20-22% clay in the ploughed layer, and was supplied moderately well with N and K and poorly with P and Zn. The experiment included 4N×4P×4K = 64 treatments in two replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The mineral fertilisers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and 50% potassium chloride. The groundwater was located at a depth of 13-15 m and the area was prone to drought. The major results were as follows: 1. In the early stages of development N×P interactions were dominant and the shoot mass increased four times compared with the unfertilised control. No yield depression was observed. At maturity the maximum 4.6 t/ha grain yield was obtained with 100 kg/ha/year N fertiliser and AL (ammonium lactate)-soluble P2O5 supplies of 105 mg/kg. A joint excess of NP, combined with drought in July, resulted in the grain yield dropping to 2.6 t/ha, the level of the control, which received no NP fertilisation for 22 years. 2. The grain:straw ratio increased to 1:2.5 and the grain:straw+husks ratio to 1:3.0 on this good wheat soil. The straw mass ranged from 6-12 t/ha and the total aboveground air-dry biomass from 9-18 t/ha, depending on the treatment. A biomass of this magnitude can be achieved without any great addition of fertiliser or plant protection agents at similar locations poorly or moderately well supplied with available P and K, even in dry years. Rye can also be grown as an alternative "non-food" crop, e.g. as an energy source. The results are only valid fora single year, so the role of year effects remains to be clarified. 3. Mineral fertilisation modified the mineral composition of the plant organs. The grain yield accumulated most of the N, P, Zn, Ni, Cr and Cd, while the remaining 14 elements exhibited greater accumulation in the straw. The specific clement content of 1 t grain + the relevant by-products was found to be 28-16-32-7-5 kg of N-P2O5-K2O-CaO-MgO. In the case of combine harvesting, if the by-products remain in the field, fertiliser recommendations can be. based on specific contents of 18-10-8-1-2 kg for these elements. The addition of Ca and Mg is superfluous on calcareous soils, as is that of K, N and P on heavier soils moderately well supplied with these elements, particularly under non-intensive conditions.
|Translated title of the contribution||Mineral fertilisation of rye (Secale cereale L.) on calcareous chernozem soil|
|Number of pages||12|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 2005|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science