Mineral fertilisation of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) on calcareous loamy chernozem soil. I

I. Kadar, D. Földesi

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The effect of various N, P and K supply levels and their combinations on the development, yield and yield components of poppy (cv. Kék Duna) was studied in the 10th year of a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment set up on loamy chernozem soil with lime deposits. A correlation was sought between the mass of the poppy plants and other parameters. The soil of the growing site contained 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 and 20% clay in the ploughed layer and was poorly supplied with P and Zn and moderately well with N and K. The experiment included 4N×4P×4K=64 treatments in 2 replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The mineral fertilisers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate containing 25% N, superphosphate (18% P) and potassium chloride (50% K). The groundwater was at a depth of 13-15 m and the area was liable to drought. The main results were as follows: 1. The P×K interactions were already pronounced in the early rosette phase of development, and flowering was initiated and completed 7-10 days earlier on well-supplied soil. In the dry year of 1983 a seed yield of 200 kg/ha was obtained on soil unfertilised for 10 years, while the yield was 800 kg/ha in the optimum N1P1K2 treatment. In this same treatment the capsule yield rose from 182 kg/ha to 586 kg/ha and the stalk yield from 708 kg/ha to 2084 kg/ha. 2. An optimum supply level was provided by 177 mg/kg AL-P2O5 and 232 mg/kg AL-K2O in the ploughed layer. A balanced PK supply was able to counteract the negative effect of drought to a considerable extent and even over-fertilisation did not cause a significant yield depression. Excessive N, however, led to a significant 10% reduction in plant number. 3. The total air-dry yield amounted to 1.3 t/ha on the control plot and to 4.3 t/ha in the N1P1K2 treatment. On average the roots made up 16%, the stalks 49%, the capsules 15% and the seed 20% of the air-dry yield at harvest. 4. An improvement in the PK supplies also led to an increase in the capsule mass, the number of capsules per plant and the number of capsules per hectare. P fertilisation had a decisive influence on the yield components: the 1000-seed mass rose on average by 15%, the number of seeds per capsule by 37%, the seed yield per capsule by 52% and the seed yield per plant by 106%. 5. The individual plant production showed differences of an order of magnitude. In an 80-100 cm stand, plants measuring only 50-60 cm are unable to satisfy their light and nutrient requirements, leading to a drastic reduction in capsule number, capsule diameter, 1000-seed mass, seed mass per capsule, seed oil % and oil and morphine base yield. The analysis of individual plants showed that poorly developed status is also indicated by low P and K concentrations or uptake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)454-465
Number of pages12
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2001


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science

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