The effect of different N, P and K supply levels and their combinations on the development, air-dry matter, oil yield, and fatty acid composition of mustard (cv. Budakalászi sárga, of Danish origin), and on the leaching and balance of NO3-N and SO4-S in the top 6 m of soil was studied in the 12th year of a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment set up on calcareous loamy chernozem. The ploughed layer contained approx. 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 and 20% clay. The soil was moderately well supplied with K, Mg, Mn and Cu and poorly with P and Zn. The experiment involved 4N×4P×4K=64 treatments in 2 replications on a total of 128 plots. The mineral fertilisers were applied in the form of 25% calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate and 50% potassium chloride. The main results were as follows: 1. The development and yield of mustard was decisively influenced by the N×P supplies. As the result of N fertilisation the air-dry matter decreased by 2% in the rosette stage, 5% at flowering and 10% on average at maturity. P fertilisation reduced the dry matter content by 4-5% and K fertilisation by 1-2%. Ripening was protracted by as much as two weeks by over-fertilisation. 2. The air-dry mass of the shoots was 0.9 t·ha-1 on May 23rd in the rosette stage, 2.7 t·ha-1 on June 3rd at the beginning of flowering and 7.9 t·ha-1 on July 15th at maturity. At harvest on August 22nd the stems had an average mass of 3.0 t·ha -1, the pods 1.6 t·ha-1 and the seeds 1.8 t·ha-1, giving a total aboveground air-dry mass of 6.4 t·ha-1. The approx. 1.0 t·ha-1 seed yield on the control plots increased to 2.4 t·ha-1 on plots given 140-150 mg·kg-1 AL-P2O5 and 140-200 mg·kg-1 AL-K2O, with an annual 200 kg/ha N fertiliser. On these same plots the total aboveground air-dry matter yield rose from 3.5 to 8.0 t·ha-1. There was no reduction in yield as the result of over-fertilisation. 3. As the result of N fertilisation, which has a decisive influence in the generative phase, the thousand seed mass rose from 5.7 to 6.7 g, the oil content of the seed yield dropped from 31.5 to 27.9% and the oil yield rose from 370 to 590 kg·ha-1. P fertilisation also significantly reduced the oil content by 1.3%, but the oil yield was increased by around 150 kg·ha-1. After K fertilisation there was an average increase of 0.8% in the oil content and 10% in the oil yield. The 330 kg·ha-1 oil yield recorded for the control plots rose to 700 kg·ha-1 on soil given 140-150 mg·kg-1 AL-P2O5 and 140-200 mg·kg-1 AL-K 2O, with an annual 100 kg·ha-1 N fertiliser. 4. The mustard oil contained an average 41-42% crucic acid (C22:1), 22-23% oleic acid (C18:1), a total 19-21% of linolenic acid (C18:3) and eicosenic acid (C20:1), 10% linoleic acid (C18:2), 3.4% lignocerinic acid (C24) and 2.5% palmitic acid (C16). After N fertilisation there was a significant rise in the percentage linoleic acid and lignocerinic acid and a reduction in the linolenic+eicosenic acid %. 5. On soil with excessive N fertilisation NO3-N had been leached to a depth of 3.5-4.0 m by the 12th year of the experiment, representing a downward movement of around 30 cm·year-1 on this area, which has a negative water balance. The plant N uptake averaged 150 mg·ha-1·year-1 on the N-fertilised plots. Some 30-50% of the non-absorbed N was detected in the soil profile in the form of NO3-N. The ratio of NO3-N in the soil increased with a rise in the level of over-fertilisation. 6. The maximum accumulation of KCl-solublc SO42- was found in the 1-2 m layer. Approximately 30% of the SO4-S introduced into the soil with superphosphate and not taken up by the plants was detected in KCl-soluble form in the 6-m soil layer. The average moisture content of the soil layers decreased with depth as follows: 0-1 m 15%, 1-2 m 13%, 2-3 m 10%, 3-4 m 9%, 4-5 m 7%, 5-6 m 5%.
|Translated title of the contribution||Mineral fertilisation of mustard (Sinapis alba L.) on chernozem soil. I|
|Number of pages||12|
|Publication status||Published - Aug 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science