Microstructure-related fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth behaviour in toughened, anhydride-cured epoxy resins

J. Karger-Kocsis, K. Friedrich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

56 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation (FCP) of plain and modified anhydride-cured epoxy resin (EP) were studied at ambient temperature. Liquid carboxyl-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene (CTBN) and silicon (SI) rubber dispersions were used as tougheners for the EP. The morphology of the modified EP was characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fracture toughness, Kc, of the compositions decreased with increasing deformation rate. Kc of the EP was slightly improved by CTBN addition and practically unaffected by incorporation of the SI dispersion when tests were performed at low cross-head speed, v. Both modifiers improved Kc at high v, and also the resistance to FCP, by shifting the curves to higher stress intensity factor ranges, ΔK, by comparison with the plain EP. It was established that both fracture and fatigue performance rely on the compliance, JR, at the rubbery plateau, and thus on the apparent molecular mass between crosslinks, Mc. The failure mechanisms were less dependent upon the loading mode (fracture, fatigue), but differed basically for the various modifiers. Rubber-induced cavitation and shear yielding of the EP were dominant for CTBN, whereas crack bifurcation and branching controlled the cracking in SI-modified EP. The simultaneous use of both modifiers resulted in a synergistic effect for both the fracture toughness at high deformation rate and the FCP behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-272
Number of pages10
JournalComposites Science and Technology
Volume48
Issue number1-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1993

Fingerprint

Acrylonitrile
Epoxy Resins
Anhydrides
Silicon
Fatigue crack propagation
Butadiene
Epoxy resins
Fracture toughness
Rubber
Microstructure
Fatigue of materials
Molecular mass
Dynamic mechanical analysis
Dispersions
Cavitation
Stress intensity factors
Cracks
Scanning electron microscopy
Liquids
Chemical analysis

Keywords

  • cross-link density
  • CTBN modifier
  • epoxy resin
  • fatigue crack propagation
  • fractography
  • fracture toughness
  • silicon rubber
  • toughening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Ceramics and Composites

Cite this

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abstract = "Fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation (FCP) of plain and modified anhydride-cured epoxy resin (EP) were studied at ambient temperature. Liquid carboxyl-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene (CTBN) and silicon (SI) rubber dispersions were used as tougheners for the EP. The morphology of the modified EP was characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fracture toughness, Kc, of the compositions decreased with increasing deformation rate. Kc of the EP was slightly improved by CTBN addition and practically unaffected by incorporation of the SI dispersion when tests were performed at low cross-head speed, v. Both modifiers improved Kc at high v, and also the resistance to FCP, by shifting the curves to higher stress intensity factor ranges, ΔK, by comparison with the plain EP. It was established that both fracture and fatigue performance rely on the compliance, JR, at the rubbery plateau, and thus on the apparent molecular mass between crosslinks, Mc. The failure mechanisms were less dependent upon the loading mode (fracture, fatigue), but differed basically for the various modifiers. Rubber-induced cavitation and shear yielding of the EP were dominant for CTBN, whereas crack bifurcation and branching controlled the cracking in SI-modified EP. The simultaneous use of both modifiers resulted in a synergistic effect for both the fracture toughness at high deformation rate and the FCP behavior.",
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author = "J. Karger-Kocsis and K. Friedrich",
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AU - Karger-Kocsis, J.

AU - Friedrich, K.

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N2 - Fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation (FCP) of plain and modified anhydride-cured epoxy resin (EP) were studied at ambient temperature. Liquid carboxyl-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene (CTBN) and silicon (SI) rubber dispersions were used as tougheners for the EP. The morphology of the modified EP was characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fracture toughness, Kc, of the compositions decreased with increasing deformation rate. Kc of the EP was slightly improved by CTBN addition and practically unaffected by incorporation of the SI dispersion when tests were performed at low cross-head speed, v. Both modifiers improved Kc at high v, and also the resistance to FCP, by shifting the curves to higher stress intensity factor ranges, ΔK, by comparison with the plain EP. It was established that both fracture and fatigue performance rely on the compliance, JR, at the rubbery plateau, and thus on the apparent molecular mass between crosslinks, Mc. The failure mechanisms were less dependent upon the loading mode (fracture, fatigue), but differed basically for the various modifiers. Rubber-induced cavitation and shear yielding of the EP were dominant for CTBN, whereas crack bifurcation and branching controlled the cracking in SI-modified EP. The simultaneous use of both modifiers resulted in a synergistic effect for both the fracture toughness at high deformation rate and the FCP behavior.

AB - Fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation (FCP) of plain and modified anhydride-cured epoxy resin (EP) were studied at ambient temperature. Liquid carboxyl-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene (CTBN) and silicon (SI) rubber dispersions were used as tougheners for the EP. The morphology of the modified EP was characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fracture toughness, Kc, of the compositions decreased with increasing deformation rate. Kc of the EP was slightly improved by CTBN addition and practically unaffected by incorporation of the SI dispersion when tests were performed at low cross-head speed, v. Both modifiers improved Kc at high v, and also the resistance to FCP, by shifting the curves to higher stress intensity factor ranges, ΔK, by comparison with the plain EP. It was established that both fracture and fatigue performance rely on the compliance, JR, at the rubbery plateau, and thus on the apparent molecular mass between crosslinks, Mc. The failure mechanisms were less dependent upon the loading mode (fracture, fatigue), but differed basically for the various modifiers. Rubber-induced cavitation and shear yielding of the EP were dominant for CTBN, whereas crack bifurcation and branching controlled the cracking in SI-modified EP. The simultaneous use of both modifiers resulted in a synergistic effect for both the fracture toughness at high deformation rate and the FCP behavior.

KW - cross-link density

KW - CTBN modifier

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KW - silicon rubber

KW - toughening

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