A Sárospataki ágyúönto{combining double acute accent} mu{combining double acute accent}helyben feltárt 17. századi Habán kerámialeletek mázának mikroszerkezete és összetétele

Translated title of the contribution: Microstructure and composition of glaze of 17th century Haban ceramics excavated at a gun-foundry in Sárospatak (Nehungary)

Bernadett Bajnóczi, G. Nagy, Mária Tóth, István Ringer, Anna Ridovics

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The Rákóczi Museum of the Hungarian National Museum started an excavation in 2006 to uncover the remnants of a gun-foundry operated between 1631 and 1648 and located in the southwestern corner of the outer castle in Sárospatak. Fragments of white and blue tin-glazed Haban faience objects were found in the late 17th century filling of the workshop remnants. No contemporary written sources exist about the technology of East-Central European tin-glazed earthenware produced by the Habans (Hutterite Anabaptists). Archaeometric research on Haban faience using modern analytical techniques has not been performed in Hungary as yet. In this paper we present the results of the analyses carried out on the opaque glaze and coloured decorations of white-glazed ceramic fragments found at the gun-foundry, which give data about the raw materials used and the production technology. Microstructure and chemical composition of glazes were analysed by using an electron microprobe coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer and crystalline inclusions were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The white glaze, which covers the buff coloured ceramic body, is tin-opacified lead-alkali glaze containing relatively high amount of tin-oxide (16 to 20 wt% SnO2). Presence of relict sand grains and heterogeneous distribution (grouped in clusters) of cassiterite (tin-oxide) particles in the opaque glaze indicates that the glazing mixture was not fritted before preparing the slurry. Cassiterite is present as angular relicts of the glaze raw material and as up to 2 μm sized needles-like particles recrystallized during firing and cooling of the glaze. Decorations were prepared from coloured lead-alkali glazes. Lead antimonate yellow (Pb2Sb2O7) was used for the yellow glaze, cobalt-, nickel- and arsenic-bearing zaffre for the blue glaze, copper-bearing pigment for the green glaze and manganese-bearing pigment for the black glaze. The opaque glaze and the decorations were fired in one step; therefore glazes were more or less mixed with each other.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalArcheometriai Muhely
Volume8
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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Glaze
Microstructure
Decoration
Opaque
Particle
Pigments
Raw Materials
Alkali
Tin Oxide
Faience
Copper
Electron Microprobe
Energy
Manganese
Inclusion
Lead Antimonate
X-ray Diffraction Analysis
Production Technology
Chemical Composition
Cobalt

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Archaeology

Cite this

A Sárospataki ágyúönto{combining double acute accent} mu{combining double acute accent}helyben feltárt 17. századi Habán kerámialeletek mázának mikroszerkezete és összetétele. / Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Nagy, G.; Tóth, Mária; Ringer, István; Ridovics, Anna.

In: Archeometriai Muhely, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2011, p. 1-16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - The Rákóczi Museum of the Hungarian National Museum started an excavation in 2006 to uncover the remnants of a gun-foundry operated between 1631 and 1648 and located in the southwestern corner of the outer castle in Sárospatak. Fragments of white and blue tin-glazed Haban faience objects were found in the late 17th century filling of the workshop remnants. No contemporary written sources exist about the technology of East-Central European tin-glazed earthenware produced by the Habans (Hutterite Anabaptists). Archaeometric research on Haban faience using modern analytical techniques has not been performed in Hungary as yet. In this paper we present the results of the analyses carried out on the opaque glaze and coloured decorations of white-glazed ceramic fragments found at the gun-foundry, which give data about the raw materials used and the production technology. Microstructure and chemical composition of glazes were analysed by using an electron microprobe coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer and crystalline inclusions were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The white glaze, which covers the buff coloured ceramic body, is tin-opacified lead-alkali glaze containing relatively high amount of tin-oxide (16 to 20 wt% SnO2). Presence of relict sand grains and heterogeneous distribution (grouped in clusters) of cassiterite (tin-oxide) particles in the opaque glaze indicates that the glazing mixture was not fritted before preparing the slurry. Cassiterite is present as angular relicts of the glaze raw material and as up to 2 μm sized needles-like particles recrystallized during firing and cooling of the glaze. Decorations were prepared from coloured lead-alkali glazes. Lead antimonate yellow (Pb2Sb2O7) was used for the yellow glaze, cobalt-, nickel- and arsenic-bearing zaffre for the blue glaze, copper-bearing pigment for the green glaze and manganese-bearing pigment for the black glaze. The opaque glaze and the decorations were fired in one step; therefore glazes were more or less mixed with each other.

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