Microcystin-LR, a cyanobacterial toxin, induces growth inhibition and histological alterations in common reed (Phragmites australis) plants regenerated from embryogenic calli

Csaba Máthé, Márta M-Hamvas, Gábor Vasas, Gyula Surányi, István Bácsi, Dániel Beyer, Szilvia Tóth, Miklós Tímár, George Borbély

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35 Citations (Scopus)


• The aim of this study was to establish the histological effects of exposure to microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a cyanotoxin, on axenic Phragmites australis plantlets. • Plantlets were regenerated from embryogenic reed calli by tissue culture methods. • Microcystin-LR inhibited the growth and development of embryogenic calli and the growth of reed plantlets. The 50% plantlet growth inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of MC-LR was 12 μg ml-1 (12.07 μm) on mineral medium and 36 μg ml -1 (36.22 μm) on Murashige-Skoog medium. In the case of roots, the IC50 value was 4.1 μg ml-1 (4.12 μm) on both media. Microcystin-LR induced aerenchyma obturation, altered lignification of cell walls in the axial organs, root necrosis and the capture of lateral or adventitious roots in the tissues of axial organs of reed plantlets. Cyanotoxin induced the premature development of lateral roots, root coalescence and early aerenchyma formation. • Our data suggest that microcystin-LR, a cyanotoxin, induced developmental and histological alterations leading to growth inhibition of reed, and the induced harms have an impact on understanding reed decay in eutrophic fresh waters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)824-835
Number of pages12
JournalNew Phytologist
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2007



  • Cyanotoxin
  • Growth inhibition
  • Histology of reed
  • Microcystin-LR
  • Phragmites australis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Plant Science

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