Change of osmolality surrounding spawned sperm from isotonic to hypotonic causes the initiation of sperm motility in the common carp. Here we show that membrane-permeable cAMP does not initiate motility of carp sperm that is quiescent in isotonic solution, and that motility of the demembranated sperm can be reactivated without cAMP. Furthermore, the cAMP level does not change during the initiation of sperm motility, and inhibitors of protein kinase do not affect sperm motility, suggesting that no cAMP-dependent system is necessary for the regulation of sperm motility. Sperm motility could not be initiated in Ca2+-free hypoosmotic solutions, and significant increase in the intracellular Ca2+ level was observed by a Ca-sensitive fluorescence dye during hypoosmolality-induced active motion period. The demembranated sperm cells were fully reactivated in the solutions containing 10-7 to 10-5 M Ca2+. Ca2+ channel blockers such as verapamil and ω-conotoxin reversibly inhibited the initiation of sperm motility, suggesting that Ca2+ influx is the prerequisite for the initiation of carp sperm motility. Motility of intact sperm was completely blocked; however, that of the demembranated sperm was not inhibited by the calmodulin inhibitor W7, suggesting that the calmodulin bound close to the plasma membrane participated in the initiation of sperm motility. Flow cytometric membrane potential measurements and spectrophotometric measurements by using fluorescence dyes showed transient membrane hyperpolarization on hypoosmolality-induced motility. This article discusses the role of membrane hyperpolarization on removal of inactivation of Ca2+ channels, leading to Ca2+ influx at the initiation of carp sperm motility.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 29 2000|
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