Calf thymus and rat liver poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzymes, and the polymerase present in extracts of rat liver nuclei synthesize unstable mono-ADP-ribose protein adducts at 100 nM or lower NAD concentrations. The isolated enzyme-mono-ADP-ribose adduct hydrolyses to ADP-ribose and enzyme protein at pH values slightly above 7.0 indicating a continuous release of ADP-ribose from NAD through this enzyme-bound intermediate under physiological conditions. NH2OH at pH 7.0 hydrolyses the mono-ADP-ribose enzyme adduct. Desamino NAD and some other homologs at nanomolar concentrations act as 'forward' activators of the initiating mono-ADP-ribosylation reaction. These NAD analogs at micromolar concentrations do not affect polymer formation that takes place at micromolar NAD concentrations. Benzamides at nanomolar concentrations also activate mono-ADP-ribosylation of the enzyme, but at higher concentrations inhibit elongation at micromolar NAD as substrate. In nuclei, the enzyme molecule extensively auto-ADP-ribosylates itself, whereas histones are trans-ADP-ribosylated to a much lower extent. The unstable mono-ADP-ribose enzyme adduct represents an initiator intermediate in poly ADP-ribosylation.
- Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase Mono-ADP-ribose transfer Initiation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Structural Biology
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology