Mechanism of thiol-supported arsenate reduction mediated by phosphorolytic-arsenolytic enzymes

II. Enzymatic formation of arsenylated products susceptible for reduction to arsenite by Thiols

Z. Gregus, Goedele Roos, Paul Geerlings, B. Németi

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29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Enzymes catalyzing the phosphorolytic cleavage of their substrates can reduce arsenate (AsV) to the more toxic arsenite (AsIII) via the arsenolytic substrate cleavage in presence of a reductant, as glutathione or dithiotreitol (DTT). We have shown this for purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glycogen phosphorylase-a (GPa), and phosphotransacetylase (PTA). Using a multidisciplinary approach, we explored the mechanism whereby these enzymes mediate AsV reduction. It is known that PNP cleaves inosine with AsV into hypoxanthine and ribose-1-arsenate. In presence of inosine, AsV and DTT, PNP mediates AsIII formation. In this study, we incubated PNP first with inosine and AsV, allowing the arsenolytic reaction to run, then blocked this reaction with the PNP inhibitor BCX-1777, added DTT and continued the incubation. Despite inhibition of PNP, large amount of AsIII was formed in these incubations, indicating that PNP does not reduce AsV directly but forms a product (i.e., ribose-1-arsenate) that is reduced to AsIII by DTT. Similar studies with the other arsenolytic enzymes (GPa, GAPDH, and PTA) yielded similar results. Various thiols that differentially supported AsV reduction when present during PNP-catalyzed arsenolysis (DTT ∼ dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid > mercaptoethanol > DMSA > GSH) similarly supported AsV reduction when added only after a transient PNP-catalyzed arsenolysis, which preformed ribose-1-arsenate. Experiments with progressively delayed addition of DTT after BCX-1777 indicated that ribose-1-arsenate is short-lived with a half-life of 4 min. In conclusion, phosphorolytic enzymes, such as PNP, GAPDH, GPa, and PTA, promote thiol-dependent AsV reduction because they convert AsV into arsenylated products reducible by thiols more readily than AsV. In support of this view, reactivity studies using conceptual density functional theory reactivity descriptors (local softness, nucleofugality) indicate that reduction by thiols of the arsenylated metabolites is favored over AsV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)282-292
Number of pages11
JournalToxicological Sciences
Volume110
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Enzymes
Phosphate Acetyltransferase
Ribose
Inosine
Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases
Glycogen Phosphorylase
arsenic acid
arsenite
Succimer
Hypoxanthine
Sulfonic Acids
Mercaptoethanol
Poisons
Reducing Agents
Substrates
Metabolites
Density functional theory
Glutathione

Keywords

  • Arsenate reduction
  • Glutathione
  • HSAB principle
  • Nucleofugality
  • Phosphorolytic enzymes
  • Thiols

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

@article{d59fdc16d22f45b5b47d597d008853c3,
title = "Mechanism of thiol-supported arsenate reduction mediated by phosphorolytic-arsenolytic enzymes: II. Enzymatic formation of arsenylated products susceptible for reduction to arsenite by Thiols",
abstract = "Enzymes catalyzing the phosphorolytic cleavage of their substrates can reduce arsenate (AsV) to the more toxic arsenite (AsIII) via the arsenolytic substrate cleavage in presence of a reductant, as glutathione or dithiotreitol (DTT). We have shown this for purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glycogen phosphorylase-a (GPa), and phosphotransacetylase (PTA). Using a multidisciplinary approach, we explored the mechanism whereby these enzymes mediate AsV reduction. It is known that PNP cleaves inosine with AsV into hypoxanthine and ribose-1-arsenate. In presence of inosine, AsV and DTT, PNP mediates AsIII formation. In this study, we incubated PNP first with inosine and AsV, allowing the arsenolytic reaction to run, then blocked this reaction with the PNP inhibitor BCX-1777, added DTT and continued the incubation. Despite inhibition of PNP, large amount of AsIII was formed in these incubations, indicating that PNP does not reduce AsV directly but forms a product (i.e., ribose-1-arsenate) that is reduced to AsIII by DTT. Similar studies with the other arsenolytic enzymes (GPa, GAPDH, and PTA) yielded similar results. Various thiols that differentially supported AsV reduction when present during PNP-catalyzed arsenolysis (DTT ∼ dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid > mercaptoethanol > DMSA > GSH) similarly supported AsV reduction when added only after a transient PNP-catalyzed arsenolysis, which preformed ribose-1-arsenate. Experiments with progressively delayed addition of DTT after BCX-1777 indicated that ribose-1-arsenate is short-lived with a half-life of 4 min. In conclusion, phosphorolytic enzymes, such as PNP, GAPDH, GPa, and PTA, promote thiol-dependent AsV reduction because they convert AsV into arsenylated products reducible by thiols more readily than AsV. In support of this view, reactivity studies using conceptual density functional theory reactivity descriptors (local softness, nucleofugality) indicate that reduction by thiols of the arsenylated metabolites is favored over AsV.",
keywords = "Arsenate reduction, Glutathione, HSAB principle, Nucleofugality, Phosphorolytic enzymes, Thiols",
author = "Z. Gregus and Goedele Roos and Paul Geerlings and B. N{\'e}meti",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1093/toxsci/kfp113",
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pages = "282--292",
journal = "Toxicological Sciences",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Mechanism of thiol-supported arsenate reduction mediated by phosphorolytic-arsenolytic enzymes

T2 - II. Enzymatic formation of arsenylated products susceptible for reduction to arsenite by Thiols

AU - Gregus, Z.

AU - Roos, Goedele

AU - Geerlings, Paul

AU - Németi, B.

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Enzymes catalyzing the phosphorolytic cleavage of their substrates can reduce arsenate (AsV) to the more toxic arsenite (AsIII) via the arsenolytic substrate cleavage in presence of a reductant, as glutathione or dithiotreitol (DTT). We have shown this for purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glycogen phosphorylase-a (GPa), and phosphotransacetylase (PTA). Using a multidisciplinary approach, we explored the mechanism whereby these enzymes mediate AsV reduction. It is known that PNP cleaves inosine with AsV into hypoxanthine and ribose-1-arsenate. In presence of inosine, AsV and DTT, PNP mediates AsIII formation. In this study, we incubated PNP first with inosine and AsV, allowing the arsenolytic reaction to run, then blocked this reaction with the PNP inhibitor BCX-1777, added DTT and continued the incubation. Despite inhibition of PNP, large amount of AsIII was formed in these incubations, indicating that PNP does not reduce AsV directly but forms a product (i.e., ribose-1-arsenate) that is reduced to AsIII by DTT. Similar studies with the other arsenolytic enzymes (GPa, GAPDH, and PTA) yielded similar results. Various thiols that differentially supported AsV reduction when present during PNP-catalyzed arsenolysis (DTT ∼ dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid > mercaptoethanol > DMSA > GSH) similarly supported AsV reduction when added only after a transient PNP-catalyzed arsenolysis, which preformed ribose-1-arsenate. Experiments with progressively delayed addition of DTT after BCX-1777 indicated that ribose-1-arsenate is short-lived with a half-life of 4 min. In conclusion, phosphorolytic enzymes, such as PNP, GAPDH, GPa, and PTA, promote thiol-dependent AsV reduction because they convert AsV into arsenylated products reducible by thiols more readily than AsV. In support of this view, reactivity studies using conceptual density functional theory reactivity descriptors (local softness, nucleofugality) indicate that reduction by thiols of the arsenylated metabolites is favored over AsV.

AB - Enzymes catalyzing the phosphorolytic cleavage of their substrates can reduce arsenate (AsV) to the more toxic arsenite (AsIII) via the arsenolytic substrate cleavage in presence of a reductant, as glutathione or dithiotreitol (DTT). We have shown this for purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glycogen phosphorylase-a (GPa), and phosphotransacetylase (PTA). Using a multidisciplinary approach, we explored the mechanism whereby these enzymes mediate AsV reduction. It is known that PNP cleaves inosine with AsV into hypoxanthine and ribose-1-arsenate. In presence of inosine, AsV and DTT, PNP mediates AsIII formation. In this study, we incubated PNP first with inosine and AsV, allowing the arsenolytic reaction to run, then blocked this reaction with the PNP inhibitor BCX-1777, added DTT and continued the incubation. Despite inhibition of PNP, large amount of AsIII was formed in these incubations, indicating that PNP does not reduce AsV directly but forms a product (i.e., ribose-1-arsenate) that is reduced to AsIII by DTT. Similar studies with the other arsenolytic enzymes (GPa, GAPDH, and PTA) yielded similar results. Various thiols that differentially supported AsV reduction when present during PNP-catalyzed arsenolysis (DTT ∼ dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid > mercaptoethanol > DMSA > GSH) similarly supported AsV reduction when added only after a transient PNP-catalyzed arsenolysis, which preformed ribose-1-arsenate. Experiments with progressively delayed addition of DTT after BCX-1777 indicated that ribose-1-arsenate is short-lived with a half-life of 4 min. In conclusion, phosphorolytic enzymes, such as PNP, GAPDH, GPa, and PTA, promote thiol-dependent AsV reduction because they convert AsV into arsenylated products reducible by thiols more readily than AsV. In support of this view, reactivity studies using conceptual density functional theory reactivity descriptors (local softness, nucleofugality) indicate that reduction by thiols of the arsenylated metabolites is favored over AsV.

KW - Arsenate reduction

KW - Glutathione

KW - HSAB principle

KW - Nucleofugality

KW - Phosphorolytic enzymes

KW - Thiols

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U2 - 10.1093/toxsci/kfp113

DO - 10.1093/toxsci/kfp113

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