A recent study on nanoparticle-induced hypersensitivity reactions in pigs showed robust pulmonary intravascular macrophage clearance of Polybead® carboxylate microspheres in mediating the adverse cardiopulmonary distress, irrespective of the ability of these particles to activate the complement (C) system in vitro. Focusing on this observation, this article highlights the controversies in projecting in vitro C assay data to in vivo conditions and applying data on polystyrene particles to therapeutic nanopharmaceuticals. Based on overwhelming evidence of a role of anaphylatoxins in hypersensitivity reactions, the need to further explore the role of C activation in the reported and other reactions is highlighted. C-activation-related and C-independent pseudoallergies (CARPA and CIPA) can proceed simultaneously, as outlined by the ‘double-hit’ hypothesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Drug Discovery