Megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus (MPPH) syndrome is a developmental brain disorder characterized by an enlarged brain size with bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria and a variable degree of ventriculomegaly. MPPH syndrome is associated with oromotor dysfunction, epilepsy, intellectual disability and postaxial hexadactyly. The molecular diagnosis of this disorder is established by the identification of a pathogenic variant in either AKT3, CCND2 or PIK3R2. Previously reported AKT3 variants are associated with various brain abnormalities and may lead to megalencephaly. MPPH syndrome is usually due to germline pathogenic AKT3 variants. Somatic mosaic pathogenic variants associated with hemimegalencephaly, which is similar to MPPH, have also been observed. A Hungarian Roma family with two half-siblings, which present with intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, epilepsy, brain malformations, and megalencephaly was studied. Whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis was performed. WES analysis revealed a heterozygous c.1393C > T p.(Arg465Trp) pathogenic missense AKT3 variant in both affected half-siblings. The variant was verified via Sanger sequencing and was not present in the DNA sample from the healthy mother, which was derived from peripheral blood, suggesting maternal germline mosaicism. In conclusion, this is the first report in which maternal germline mosaicism of a rare pathogenic AKT3 variant leads to autosomal dominantly inherited MPPH syndrome.
- Megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome
- Whole exome sequencing
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry