Az axilla kezelése emlórákban: evidenciák és vitatott kérdések.

Translated title of the contribution: Management of the axilla in breast cancer: evidences and unresolved issues

J. Fodor, C. Polgár, G. Péley, G. Németh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this study the evidences governing the management of the axilla were examined and on the base of these evidences, the optimal clinical practice was outlined. Computerized searches for publications, debating specific treatment of axilla, were done of MEDLINE data. Level of evidence was determined using standard criteria: 1. metaanalysis of randomized trials, 2. randomized trial, 3. prospective and retrospective studies, 4. reports and opinion of expert committees and working teams. The probability of lymph node involvement is related directly to the size of the primary tumour, and even with small tumour (up to 10 mm), the risk of nodal metastases is in the order of 10-20%. To date, the best strategy for determining complete lymph node status (qualitative and quantitative information) is through axillary dissection. For an accurate staging, at least ten nodes have to be obtained. Formal axillary sampling does not provide total quantitative data in patients with involved axilla. Sentinel node biopsy is a promising alternative to axillary dissection for staging but it is still under way. Axillary dissection should be omitted in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ since the probability of nodal involvement is less than 1%. In invasive breast cancer, the risk of axillary recurrence in the untreated axilla varies from about 10% to 40%. For women with stage I-II breast cancer at least level I and II axillary node dissection should be offered as the standard procedure to reduce the risk of regional recurrence. Women at high risk of axillary recurrence (> or = 4 involved nodes, <6 nodes were obtained from a positive axilla) will require axillary irradiation after axillary dissection. However, there is a lack of higher level evidence to support the benefit of post-dissection axillary irradiation. Evidences suggest that axillary irradiation is as effective as axillary dissection in preventing regional recurrence. The following factors have to be considered for decisions regarding dissection or irradiation: patient wishes, general condition, age, the necessity of pathological nodal status for systemic therapy and the risk of post-treatment morbidity. At this time, there is no well defined subgroup of patients in whom axillary intervention can be safely omitted. In selected patients with clinically negative axilla, the decision to observe the axilla rather than use surgery or irradiation should be made jointly between the women and her specialists (surgeon, radiation and medical oncologist). The benefits of axillary treatment in prolonging survival are unclear. Studies have reported different effects on survival. Until evidences remain insufficient, the risk of axillary recurrence has to be minimized, and more and more patients have to be provide to get treatments in randomized clinical trials. Patient should be fully informed about the benefits and the potential side effects of treatments. A combination of radiotherapy and axillary dissection results an increased morbidity rate compared with either alone.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)1941-1950
Number of pages10
JournalOrvosi Hetilap
Volume142
Issue number36
Publication statusPublished - Sep 9 2001

Fingerprint

Axilla
Dissection
Breast Neoplasms
Recurrence
Therapeutics
Lymph Nodes
Morbidity
Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating
Survival
Expert Testimony
MEDLINE
Publications
Neoplasms
Radiotherapy
Randomized Controlled Trials
Retrospective Studies
Prospective Studies
Neoplasm Metastasis
Biopsy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Az axilla kezelése emlórákban : evidenciák és vitatott kérdések. / Fodor, J.; Polgár, C.; Péley, G.; Németh, G.

In: Orvosi Hetilap, Vol. 142, No. 36, 09.09.2001, p. 1941-1950.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fodor, J. ; Polgár, C. ; Péley, G. ; Németh, G. / Az axilla kezelése emlórákban : evidenciák és vitatott kérdések. In: Orvosi Hetilap. 2001 ; Vol. 142, No. 36. pp. 1941-1950.
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abstract = "In this study the evidences governing the management of the axilla were examined and on the base of these evidences, the optimal clinical practice was outlined. Computerized searches for publications, debating specific treatment of axilla, were done of MEDLINE data. Level of evidence was determined using standard criteria: 1. metaanalysis of randomized trials, 2. randomized trial, 3. prospective and retrospective studies, 4. reports and opinion of expert committees and working teams. The probability of lymph node involvement is related directly to the size of the primary tumour, and even with small tumour (up to 10 mm), the risk of nodal metastases is in the order of 10-20{\%}. To date, the best strategy for determining complete lymph node status (qualitative and quantitative information) is through axillary dissection. For an accurate staging, at least ten nodes have to be obtained. Formal axillary sampling does not provide total quantitative data in patients with involved axilla. Sentinel node biopsy is a promising alternative to axillary dissection for staging but it is still under way. Axillary dissection should be omitted in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ since the probability of nodal involvement is less than 1{\%}. In invasive breast cancer, the risk of axillary recurrence in the untreated axilla varies from about 10{\%} to 40{\%}. For women with stage I-II breast cancer at least level I and II axillary node dissection should be offered as the standard procedure to reduce the risk of regional recurrence. Women at high risk of axillary recurrence (> or = 4 involved nodes, <6 nodes were obtained from a positive axilla) will require axillary irradiation after axillary dissection. However, there is a lack of higher level evidence to support the benefit of post-dissection axillary irradiation. Evidences suggest that axillary irradiation is as effective as axillary dissection in preventing regional recurrence. The following factors have to be considered for decisions regarding dissection or irradiation: patient wishes, general condition, age, the necessity of pathological nodal status for systemic therapy and the risk of post-treatment morbidity. At this time, there is no well defined subgroup of patients in whom axillary intervention can be safely omitted. In selected patients with clinically negative axilla, the decision to observe the axilla rather than use surgery or irradiation should be made jointly between the women and her specialists (surgeon, radiation and medical oncologist). The benefits of axillary treatment in prolonging survival are unclear. Studies have reported different effects on survival. Until evidences remain insufficient, the risk of axillary recurrence has to be minimized, and more and more patients have to be provide to get treatments in randomized clinical trials. Patient should be fully informed about the benefits and the potential side effects of treatments. A combination of radiotherapy and axillary dissection results an increased morbidity rate compared with either alone.",
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