This chapter reviews the recent experimental and theoretical developments of dilute alloys of three-dimensional elements with simple metals with particular emphasis on the low temperature properties. It is well established by various types of experiments that a model, proposed by Anderson, in which the Coulomb correlations between the d-electrons and the mixing of d- and s-host states is of importance, is capable of accounting for most of the experimental findings. Due to the low dimensionality of the problem, correlation effects are of crucial importance. These have mainly been discussed in the strongly magnetic limit where Coulomb effects are important. The Anderson model reduces to the so-called s–d model in this limit, where the well-defined spin of the impurity is weakly coupled to the host states. The gradual transition from a high temperature state—where the impurity looks magnetic—to a low temperature nonmagnetic state, is a central feature of dilute alloys. The high temperature properties can be adequately described by perturbational treatments while at low temperatures Fermi liquid theory is appropriate. The crossover between the two limits can be accounted for numerically by using Wilson's renormalization group method.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Condensed Matter Physics