Long-term study of precipitation and fertilization interactions on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield in the Nyírlugos Field Trial in Hungary between 1973 and 1990

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With a warmer climate, dry and excess rainfall conditions could become more frequent, severe, and longer-lasting. For these reasons, long-term study had been conducting in Eastern Hungary in the Nyírlugos Field Trial between 1973 and 1990 for obtain relationships between precipitation quantities-, soil agrochemical properties and mineral fertilization on winter wheat yield. The experimental precipitation character was formed by winter half-years (Oct.-Mar.), months (Oct.-Sep.), pre-months of sowing (Aug.), critical sequential month number in vegetation seasons (Sep.-Jul.) and critical sequential month number in experimental years (Sep.-Aug). In average rainfall years (equivalent to the 50 year rainfall mean from 1901 to 1950) without any mineral fertilization, the wheat yield stabilized at the level of 1.58 t·ha-1. With N, P, K and Mg fertilizer input, the minimum and maximum yields were 2.29 t·ha-1 and 3.72 t·ha -1. The yield increased to 38.5% (1.00 t·ha-1) with the whole NPK and Mg completed NPKMg treatment. On the control plots, the yield grew by 6% during a dry year compared to average year. At N, NP and NK combinations yields were diminished to 12%. Dry damage on yield production dropped to 11% with NPK and NPKMg applications. In dryer years compared to average years, yields were reduced with 31% on the control soils. Yields were lessened for an average year by 42% and 47% with N, NP, NK and NPK, NPKMg loadings. During wet conditions and without fertilization, the yields decreased more dramatically (82%) as compared to dry conditions. The yield was subsided by 61% with unfavorable (N, NP, NK) nutritions and the effect of excess rainfall was lowered on NPK and NPKMg treatments to 59%. Correlations between yield and precipitation during various vegetation periods (control: R = 0.59, N: R = 0.57, NP: R = 0.76, NK: R = 0.54, NPK: R = 0.67, NPKMg: R = 0.71) indicated that optimum yields developed in response to rainfall in the 450-500 mm range. Above or below this rainfall range yields reducted quadratically. Results obtained on fertilization compensation [yield loss (kg mm-1 and %) of ± 100 mm precipitation interspace (-lessening/+increasing, mm) from maximum yield (t ha-1) and its rainfall quantity (mm)] on negative effects of dry climate confirm that minimum and maximum yield losses had have changed among 0% (NP) - 114% (N), and in wet -46% (N) - 87% (NK). The best models were presented under dry in instance of wheat: NP (0%) and in wet N (-46%) loadings. In these fertilization systems in dry conditions the yield loss reductions had been having observed of 28% and in wet 64%, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)511-522
Number of pages12
JournalCereal Research Communications
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2008



  • Dry
  • Nutrient supply
  • Wet
  • Winter wheat
  • Yield

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Genetics

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