Long-term measurements of energy budget and trace gas fluxes between the atmosphere and different types of ecosystems in Hungary

T. Weidinger, L. Horváth, Z. Nagy, András Zénó Gyöngyösi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Following a presentation of the brief history and present status of micrometeorological research activity in Hungary, the field measurement programs, instrumentation and flux calculation methodology are presented. The improvement in micrometeorological measurements and data acquisition system is also illustrated. Field experiments using the gradient and profile methods for trace gas fluxes were initiated in 1990. First, daily and annual variation in deposition velocities of ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide above grassland and spruce forest were investigated. The main goal of the investigations was the determination of the dry deposition velocity over different types of vegetation in different seasons. The measurements of dry deposition processes of nitrogen compounds, first of all of ammonia, over semi-natural grasslands, have been performed since year 2000. The ammonia fluxes are bidirectional, with net deposition on the annual time scale. Continuous measurements of the budget of energy, water, carbon and nitrogen, respectively, were carried out in the framework of EU5 (Greengrass) and EU6 (NitroEurope) projects in the central part of the country ("Bugac-puszta") over grassland since 2002. One of the main objectives of this investigation is to reduce the large uncertainty in the estimation of CO2, N2O and CH4 fluxes into and from plots of grassland under different climatic conditions. The final part of the paper illustrates the development of the new Hungarian basic climatological network for the detection of the possible effects of future climate change, which includes standard climate station measurements, soil profile (of temperature and moisture), radiation, energy budget components and CO2 flux measurements. Based on continuous measurements of micrometeorological elements, trace gas concentrations and turbulent fluxes, more detailed information have been obtained of the structure and possible future changes of the surface layer and the intensity of the surface-biosphere-atmosphere interactions.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Environmental Fluid Mechanics
PublisherWorld Scientific Publishing Co.
Number of pages24
ISBN (Electronic)9789814293006
ISBN (Print)9814291994, 9789814291996
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2010


  • Band pass covariance method
  • Basic climatological network
  • Bowen ratio
  • Dry deposition velocity
  • Eddy accumulation technique
  • Eddy covariance
  • Gradient measurement method
  • Heat flux
  • Micrometeorology
  • Surface energy budget
  • Trace gas flux
  • Turbulent diffusion coefficient

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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