Latent myostatin has significant activity and this activity is controlled more efficiently by WFIKKN1 than by WFIKKN2

György Szláma, M. Trexler, L. Patthy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, is produced from myostatin precursor by multiple steps of proteolytic processing. After cleavage by a furin-type protease, the propeptide and growth factor domains remain associated, forming a noncovalent complex, the latent myostatin complex. Mature myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases. Here, we show that, in reporter assays, latent myostatin preparations have significant myostatin activity, as the noncovalent complex dissociates at an appreciable rate, and both mature and semilatent myostatin (a complex in which the dimeric growth factor domain interacts with only one molecule of myostatin propeptide) bind to myostatin receptor. The interaction of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin is efficiently blocked by WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 1 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 2 (WFIKKN1), a large extracellular multidomain protein that binds both mature myostatin and myostatin propeptide [Kondás et al. (2008) J Biol Chem 283, 23677-23684]. Interestingly, the paralogous protein WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 2 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 1 (WFIKKN2) was less efficient than WFIKKN1 as an antagonist of the interactions of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin. Our studies have shown that this difference is attributable to the fact that only WFIKKN1 has affinity for the propeptide domain, and this interaction increases its potency in suppressing the receptor-binding activity of semilatent myostatin. As the interaction of WFIKKN1 with various forms of myostatin permits tighter control of myostatin activity until myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases, WFIKKN1 may have greater potential as an antimyostatic agent than WFIKKN2. Structured digital abstract Furin cleaves Promyostatin by protease assay (View interaction) myostatin binds to PRO by surface plasmon resonance (View interaction) BMP-1 cleaves Promyostatin by protease assay (View interaction) ACR IIB physically interacts with Latent Myostatin by surface plasmon resonance (View interaction) Promyostatin and Promyostatin bind by comigration in gel electrophoresis (View interaction) WFIKKN1 binds to Latent Myostatin by pull down (View interaction) ACR IIB binds to Mature Myostatin by surface plasmon resonance (View Interaction: 1, 2, 3) WFIKKN1 binds to Myostatin Prodomain by surface plasmon resonance (View Interaction: 1, 2, 3) Latent myostatin has detectable activity since it dissociates at an appreciable rate and both mature and semilatent myostatin (i.e. one growth factor domain is not complexed with myostatin-prodomain) bind to myostatin receptor. Activity of semilatent myostatin is more efficiently blocked by WFIKKN1 than WFIKKN2 since affinity of WFIKKN1 for myostatin-propeptide increases its potency as an inhibitor of semilatent myostatin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3822-3839
Number of pages18
JournalFEBS Journal
Volume280
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013

Fingerprint

Myostatin
Surface Plasmon Resonance
Surface plasmon resonance
Peptide Hydrolases
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1
Growth Differentiation Factors
Furin
Assays
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins

Keywords

  • latent myostatin
  • myostatin
  • promyostatin
  • WFIKKN1
  • WFIKKN2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Latent myostatin has significant activity and this activity is controlled more efficiently by WFIKKN1 than by WFIKKN2. / Szláma, György; Trexler, M.; Patthy, L.

In: FEBS Journal, Vol. 280, No. 16, 08.2013, p. 3822-3839.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, is produced from myostatin precursor by multiple steps of proteolytic processing. After cleavage by a furin-type protease, the propeptide and growth factor domains remain associated, forming a noncovalent complex, the latent myostatin complex. Mature myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases. Here, we show that, in reporter assays, latent myostatin preparations have significant myostatin activity, as the noncovalent complex dissociates at an appreciable rate, and both mature and semilatent myostatin (a complex in which the dimeric growth factor domain interacts with only one molecule of myostatin propeptide) bind to myostatin receptor. The interaction of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin is efficiently blocked by WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 1 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 2 (WFIKKN1), a large extracellular multidomain protein that binds both mature myostatin and myostatin propeptide [Kond{\'a}s et al. (2008) J Biol Chem 283, 23677-23684]. Interestingly, the paralogous protein WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 2 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 1 (WFIKKN2) was less efficient than WFIKKN1 as an antagonist of the interactions of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin. Our studies have shown that this difference is attributable to the fact that only WFIKKN1 has affinity for the propeptide domain, and this interaction increases its potency in suppressing the receptor-binding activity of semilatent myostatin. As the interaction of WFIKKN1 with various forms of myostatin permits tighter control of myostatin activity until myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases, WFIKKN1 may have greater potential as an antimyostatic agent than WFIKKN2. Structured digital abstract Furin cleaves Promyostatin by protease assay (View interaction) myostatin binds to PRO by surface plasmon resonance (View interaction) BMP-1 cleaves Promyostatin by protease assay (View interaction) ACR IIB physically interacts with Latent Myostatin by surface plasmon resonance (View interaction) Promyostatin and Promyostatin bind by comigration in gel electrophoresis (View interaction) WFIKKN1 binds to Latent Myostatin by pull down (View interaction) ACR IIB binds to Mature Myostatin by surface plasmon resonance (View Interaction: 1, 2, 3) WFIKKN1 binds to Myostatin Prodomain by surface plasmon resonance (View Interaction: 1, 2, 3) Latent myostatin has detectable activity since it dissociates at an appreciable rate and both mature and semilatent myostatin (i.e. one growth factor domain is not complexed with myostatin-prodomain) bind to myostatin receptor. Activity of semilatent myostatin is more efficiently blocked by WFIKKN1 than WFIKKN2 since affinity of WFIKKN1 for myostatin-propeptide increases its potency as an inhibitor of semilatent myostatin.",
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N2 - Myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, is produced from myostatin precursor by multiple steps of proteolytic processing. After cleavage by a furin-type protease, the propeptide and growth factor domains remain associated, forming a noncovalent complex, the latent myostatin complex. Mature myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases. Here, we show that, in reporter assays, latent myostatin preparations have significant myostatin activity, as the noncovalent complex dissociates at an appreciable rate, and both mature and semilatent myostatin (a complex in which the dimeric growth factor domain interacts with only one molecule of myostatin propeptide) bind to myostatin receptor. The interaction of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin is efficiently blocked by WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 1 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 2 (WFIKKN1), a large extracellular multidomain protein that binds both mature myostatin and myostatin propeptide [Kondás et al. (2008) J Biol Chem 283, 23677-23684]. Interestingly, the paralogous protein WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 2 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 1 (WFIKKN2) was less efficient than WFIKKN1 as an antagonist of the interactions of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin. Our studies have shown that this difference is attributable to the fact that only WFIKKN1 has affinity for the propeptide domain, and this interaction increases its potency in suppressing the receptor-binding activity of semilatent myostatin. As the interaction of WFIKKN1 with various forms of myostatin permits tighter control of myostatin activity until myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases, WFIKKN1 may have greater potential as an antimyostatic agent than WFIKKN2. Structured digital abstract Furin cleaves Promyostatin by protease assay (View interaction) myostatin binds to PRO by surface plasmon resonance (View interaction) BMP-1 cleaves Promyostatin by protease assay (View interaction) ACR IIB physically interacts with Latent Myostatin by surface plasmon resonance (View interaction) Promyostatin and Promyostatin bind by comigration in gel electrophoresis (View interaction) WFIKKN1 binds to Latent Myostatin by pull down (View interaction) ACR IIB binds to Mature Myostatin by surface plasmon resonance (View Interaction: 1, 2, 3) WFIKKN1 binds to Myostatin Prodomain by surface plasmon resonance (View Interaction: 1, 2, 3) Latent myostatin has detectable activity since it dissociates at an appreciable rate and both mature and semilatent myostatin (i.e. one growth factor domain is not complexed with myostatin-prodomain) bind to myostatin receptor. Activity of semilatent myostatin is more efficiently blocked by WFIKKN1 than WFIKKN2 since affinity of WFIKKN1 for myostatin-propeptide increases its potency as an inhibitor of semilatent myostatin.

AB - Myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, is produced from myostatin precursor by multiple steps of proteolytic processing. After cleavage by a furin-type protease, the propeptide and growth factor domains remain associated, forming a noncovalent complex, the latent myostatin complex. Mature myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases. Here, we show that, in reporter assays, latent myostatin preparations have significant myostatin activity, as the noncovalent complex dissociates at an appreciable rate, and both mature and semilatent myostatin (a complex in which the dimeric growth factor domain interacts with only one molecule of myostatin propeptide) bind to myostatin receptor. The interaction of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin is efficiently blocked by WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 1 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 2 (WFIKKN1), a large extracellular multidomain protein that binds both mature myostatin and myostatin propeptide [Kondás et al. (2008) J Biol Chem 283, 23677-23684]. Interestingly, the paralogous protein WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 2 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 1 (WFIKKN2) was less efficient than WFIKKN1 as an antagonist of the interactions of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin. Our studies have shown that this difference is attributable to the fact that only WFIKKN1 has affinity for the propeptide domain, and this interaction increases its potency in suppressing the receptor-binding activity of semilatent myostatin. As the interaction of WFIKKN1 with various forms of myostatin permits tighter control of myostatin activity until myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases, WFIKKN1 may have greater potential as an antimyostatic agent than WFIKKN2. Structured digital abstract Furin cleaves Promyostatin by protease assay (View interaction) myostatin binds to PRO by surface plasmon resonance (View interaction) BMP-1 cleaves Promyostatin by protease assay (View interaction) ACR IIB physically interacts with Latent Myostatin by surface plasmon resonance (View interaction) Promyostatin and Promyostatin bind by comigration in gel electrophoresis (View interaction) WFIKKN1 binds to Latent Myostatin by pull down (View interaction) ACR IIB binds to Mature Myostatin by surface plasmon resonance (View Interaction: 1, 2, 3) WFIKKN1 binds to Myostatin Prodomain by surface plasmon resonance (View Interaction: 1, 2, 3) Latent myostatin has detectable activity since it dissociates at an appreciable rate and both mature and semilatent myostatin (i.e. one growth factor domain is not complexed with myostatin-prodomain) bind to myostatin receptor. Activity of semilatent myostatin is more efficiently blocked by WFIKKN1 than WFIKKN2 since affinity of WFIKKN1 for myostatin-propeptide increases its potency as an inhibitor of semilatent myostatin.

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KW - myostatin

KW - promyostatin

KW - WFIKKN1

KW - WFIKKN2

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