Late Neogene vegetation and climate reconstruction in Hungary

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Late Neogene floras from Hungary are well-known from the uppermost Miocene (Pannonian, Pontian) up to the Pliocene. During the Pannonian and Pontian swamp vegetation prevailed. During the Pannonian (e.g. Rudabánya) several thermophilous, palaeotropical elements existed. These elements disappeared from the Pontian localities. Three types of vegetation were characteristic during the Pontian in Hungary. Swamp vegetation is the most dominant and frequent one, characterized by a monotypic flora. Riparian vegetation is the second type being much more subordinate in Hungary, than the previous one. Some riparian type floras contain only species of the genus Salix. The third type of vegetation, the mesophytic forest, was considerably subordinate during this period. During the Pliocene mesophytic forests were dominant. Thermophilous elements also occur here as relicts. The floristic composition of these forests shows great similarities to the Sarmatian floras of Hungary. This mesophytic vegetation had survived to the Pannonian, Pontian in some restricted, poorly documented refuges, e.g. on a penninsula, like Rudabánya or on an inselberg, like the Mecsek Mts. The temperature does not show great changes from the Sarmatian to the Pliocene. Warm temperate climate is assumed for this period. In the Sarmatian 13-15 °C was the mean annual temperature, in the Pliocene 10-13 °C. The mean annual precipitation was 1000 mm or less with some dry periods during the year in the Pliocene. From the Sarmatian to the Pliocene, only a slight deterioration of the climate can be expected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-90
Number of pages6
JournalActa Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2002


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology

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