Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts

Gilian van Duijvendijk, Claudia Coipan, Alex Wagemakers, Manoj Fonville, Jasmin Ersöz, Anneke Oei, G. Földvári, Joppe Hovius, Willem Takken, Hein Sprong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B. burgdorferi (s.l) is considered to cycle from nymphs to larvae through vertebrates. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus are occasionally B. burgdorferi (s.l) infected, but their vector competence has never been studied. Methods: We challenged 20 laboratory mice with field-collected larvae of I. ricinus. A subset of these larvae was analysed for infections with B. burgdorferi (s.l) and B. miyamotoi. After three to four challenges, mice were sacrificed and skin and spleen samples were analysed for infection by PCR and culture. Results: Field-collected larvae were naturally infected with B. burgdorferi (s.l) (0.62 %) and B. miyamotoi (2.0 %). Two mice acquired a B. afzelii infection and four mice acquired a B. miyamotoi infection during the larval challenges. Conclusion: We showed that larvae of I. ricinus transmit B. afzelii and B. miyamotoi to rodents and calculated that rodents have a considerable chance of acquiring infections from larvae compared to nymphs. As a result, B. afzelii can cycle between larvae through rodents. Our findings further imply that larval bites on humans, which easily go unnoticed, can cause Lyme borreliosis and Borrelia miyamotoi disease.

Original languageEnglish
JournalParasites and Vectors
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Feb 20 2016

Fingerprint

Borrelia burgdorferi Group
Ixodes
Larva
Vertebrates
Borrelia burgdorferi
Borrelia
Rodentia
Nymph
Lyme Disease
Infection
Human Bites
Relapsing Fever
Borrelia Infections
Tick-Borne Diseases
Spirochaetales
Mental Competency
Spleen
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Skin

Keywords

  • Borrelia burgdorferi
  • Borrelia miyamotoi
  • Infection
  • Ixodes ricinus
  • Larva
  • Rodent
  • Tick
  • Transmission
  • Vector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

van Duijvendijk, G., Coipan, C., Wagemakers, A., Fonville, M., Ersöz, J., Oei, A., ... Sprong, H. (Accepted/In press). Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts. Parasites and Vectors. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1389-5

Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts. / van Duijvendijk, Gilian; Coipan, Claudia; Wagemakers, Alex; Fonville, Manoj; Ersöz, Jasmin; Oei, Anneke; Földvári, G.; Hovius, Joppe; Takken, Willem; Sprong, Hein.

In: Parasites and Vectors, 20.02.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

van Duijvendijk, G, Coipan, C, Wagemakers, A, Fonville, M, Ersöz, J, Oei, A, Földvári, G, Hovius, J, Takken, W & Sprong, H 2016, 'Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts', Parasites and Vectors. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1389-5
van Duijvendijk, Gilian ; Coipan, Claudia ; Wagemakers, Alex ; Fonville, Manoj ; Ersöz, Jasmin ; Oei, Anneke ; Földvári, G. ; Hovius, Joppe ; Takken, Willem ; Sprong, Hein. / Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts. In: Parasites and Vectors. 2016.
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title = "Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts",
abstract = "Background: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B. burgdorferi (s.l) is considered to cycle from nymphs to larvae through vertebrates. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus are occasionally B. burgdorferi (s.l) infected, but their vector competence has never been studied. Methods: We challenged 20 laboratory mice with field-collected larvae of I. ricinus. A subset of these larvae was analysed for infections with B. burgdorferi (s.l) and B. miyamotoi. After three to four challenges, mice were sacrificed and skin and spleen samples were analysed for infection by PCR and culture. Results: Field-collected larvae were naturally infected with B. burgdorferi (s.l) (0.62 {\%}) and B. miyamotoi (2.0 {\%}). Two mice acquired a B. afzelii infection and four mice acquired a B. miyamotoi infection during the larval challenges. Conclusion: We showed that larvae of I. ricinus transmit B. afzelii and B. miyamotoi to rodents and calculated that rodents have a considerable chance of acquiring infections from larvae compared to nymphs. As a result, B. afzelii can cycle between larvae through rodents. Our findings further imply that larval bites on humans, which easily go unnoticed, can cause Lyme borreliosis and Borrelia miyamotoi disease.",
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AU - van Duijvendijk, Gilian

AU - Coipan, Claudia

AU - Wagemakers, Alex

AU - Fonville, Manoj

AU - Ersöz, Jasmin

AU - Oei, Anneke

AU - Földvári, G.

AU - Hovius, Joppe

AU - Takken, Willem

AU - Sprong, Hein

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N2 - Background: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B. burgdorferi (s.l) is considered to cycle from nymphs to larvae through vertebrates. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus are occasionally B. burgdorferi (s.l) infected, but their vector competence has never been studied. Methods: We challenged 20 laboratory mice with field-collected larvae of I. ricinus. A subset of these larvae was analysed for infections with B. burgdorferi (s.l) and B. miyamotoi. After three to four challenges, mice were sacrificed and skin and spleen samples were analysed for infection by PCR and culture. Results: Field-collected larvae were naturally infected with B. burgdorferi (s.l) (0.62 %) and B. miyamotoi (2.0 %). Two mice acquired a B. afzelii infection and four mice acquired a B. miyamotoi infection during the larval challenges. Conclusion: We showed that larvae of I. ricinus transmit B. afzelii and B. miyamotoi to rodents and calculated that rodents have a considerable chance of acquiring infections from larvae compared to nymphs. As a result, B. afzelii can cycle between larvae through rodents. Our findings further imply that larval bites on humans, which easily go unnoticed, can cause Lyme borreliosis and Borrelia miyamotoi disease.

AB - Background: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B. burgdorferi (s.l) is considered to cycle from nymphs to larvae through vertebrates. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus are occasionally B. burgdorferi (s.l) infected, but their vector competence has never been studied. Methods: We challenged 20 laboratory mice with field-collected larvae of I. ricinus. A subset of these larvae was analysed for infections with B. burgdorferi (s.l) and B. miyamotoi. After three to four challenges, mice were sacrificed and skin and spleen samples were analysed for infection by PCR and culture. Results: Field-collected larvae were naturally infected with B. burgdorferi (s.l) (0.62 %) and B. miyamotoi (2.0 %). Two mice acquired a B. afzelii infection and four mice acquired a B. miyamotoi infection during the larval challenges. Conclusion: We showed that larvae of I. ricinus transmit B. afzelii and B. miyamotoi to rodents and calculated that rodents have a considerable chance of acquiring infections from larvae compared to nymphs. As a result, B. afzelii can cycle between larvae through rodents. Our findings further imply that larval bites on humans, which easily go unnoticed, can cause Lyme borreliosis and Borrelia miyamotoi disease.

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KW - Infection

KW - Ixodes ricinus

KW - Larva

KW - Rodent

KW - Tick

KW - Transmission

KW - Vector

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