Broiler rabbit production has become an important branch of animal protein and fur production, not only in the traditionally rabbit breeding and consuming countries, but recently in many other countries of the world. The profitability of the rabbit industry is dependent primarily on the good feed conversion. Aspects of this include factors such as morbidity and mortality of infections, adequate knowledge and fulfilment of both accommodation and nutritional requirements, appropriate breeding systems, etc. There is much controversy about the role coccidia in the losses of intensified rabbit breeding enterprises. There is no doubt about the significance of Eimeria stiedai which may cause condemnation of large amounts of large amounts of liver as a result of infection in rabbit colonies of small holders. However, this parasite is rare in large scale rabbit farms. In the latter, intestinal coccidiosis is most frequently - although not invariably - incriminated either as a primary or more often as a predisposing factor of intestinal enteropathies causing severe mortality, mainly in the early post-weaning period. The ability to isolate and maintain species of Eimeria in specifc pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits has made it possible to characterize them, such as the most pathogenic E. intestinalis and E. flavescens: the pathogenic E. magna, E. irresidua and E. piriformis; and the least pathogenic E. perforans, E. neoleporis (syn o E. coecicola and E. media species. Prophylactic measures are dealth with briefly, and laboratory and field trials with the currently most promising rabbit anti-coccidial drugs (Lerbek, robenidine and salinomyciin) are dealt with in more detail.
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