Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses

Teja Tscharntke, Jason M. Tylianakis, Tatyana A. Rand, Raphael K. Didham, Lenore Fahrig, P. Batáry, Janne Bengtsson, Yann Clough, Thomas O. Crist, Carsten F. Dormann, Robert M. Ewers, Jochen Fründ, Robert D. Holt, Andrea Holzschuh, Alexandra M. Klein, David Kleijn, Claire Kremen, Doug A. Landis, William Laurance, David Lindenmayer & 6 others Christoph Scherber, Navjot Sodhi, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Carsten Thies, Wim H. van der Putten, Catrin Westphal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

740 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Understanding how landscape characteristics affect biodiversity patterns and ecological processes at local and landscape scales is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest eight hypotheses, which we hope will encourage more systematic research on the role of landscape composition and configuration in determining the structure of ecological communities, ecosystem functioning and services. We organize the eight hypotheses under four overarching themes. Section A: 'landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns' includes (1) the landscape species pool hypothesis-the size of the landscape-wide species pool moderates local (alpha) biodiversity, and (2) the dominance of beta diversity hypothesis-landscape-moderated dissimilarity of local communities determines landscape-wide biodiversity and overrides negative local effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Section B: 'landscape moderation of population dynamics' includes (3) the cross-habitat spillover hypothesis-landscape-moderated spillover of energy, resources and organisms across habitats, including between managed and natural ecosystems, influences landscape-wide community structure and associated processes and (4) the landscape-moderated concentration and dilution hypothesis-spatial and temporal changes in landscape composition can cause transient concentration or dilution of populations with functional consequences. Section C: 'landscape moderation of functional trait selection' includes (5) the landscape-moderated functional trait selection hypothesis-landscape moderation of species trait selection shapes the functional role and trajectory of community assembly, and (6) the landscape-moderated insurance hypothesis-landscape complexity provides spatial and temporal insurance, i.e. high resilience and stability of ecological processes in changing environments. Section D: 'landscape constraints on conservation management' includes (7) the intermediate landscape-complexity hypothesis-landscape-moderated effectiveness of local conservation management is highest in structurally simple, rather than in cleared (i.e. extremely simplified) or in complex landscapes, and (8) the landscape-moderated biodiversity versus ecosystem service management hypothesis-landscape-moderated biodiversity conservation to optimize functional diversity and related ecosystem services will not protect endangered species. Shifting our research focus from local to landscape-moderated effects on biodiversity will be critical to developing solutions for future biodiversity and ecosystem service management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)661-685
Number of pages25
JournalBiological Reviews
Volume87
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2012

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Biodiversity
Ecosystem
biodiversity
Ecosystems
Conservation
Insurance
Dilution
Endangered Species
Biota
Population dynamics
Population Dynamics
Energy resources
ecosystem services
Chemical analysis
Research
insurance
Trajectories

Keywords

  • Belowground-aboveground patterns
  • Beta diversity
  • Conservation management
  • Ecosystem functioning and services
  • Functional traits
  • Insurance hypothesis
  • Landscape composition and configuration
  • Multitrophic interactions
  • Resilience and stability
  • Spatial heterogeneity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

Tscharntke, T., Tylianakis, J. M., Rand, T. A., Didham, R. K., Fahrig, L., Batáry, P., ... Westphal, C. (2012). Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses. Biological Reviews, 87(3), 661-685. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2011.00216.x

Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses. / Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Rand, Tatyana A.; Didham, Raphael K.; Fahrig, Lenore; Batáry, P.; Bengtsson, Janne; Clough, Yann; Crist, Thomas O.; Dormann, Carsten F.; Ewers, Robert M.; Fründ, Jochen; Holt, Robert D.; Holzschuh, Andrea; Klein, Alexandra M.; Kleijn, David; Kremen, Claire; Landis, Doug A.; Laurance, William; Lindenmayer, David; Scherber, Christoph; Sodhi, Navjot; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Thies, Carsten; van der Putten, Wim H.; Westphal, Catrin.

In: Biological Reviews, Vol. 87, No. 3, 08.2012, p. 661-685.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tscharntke, T, Tylianakis, JM, Rand, TA, Didham, RK, Fahrig, L, Batáry, P, Bengtsson, J, Clough, Y, Crist, TO, Dormann, CF, Ewers, RM, Fründ, J, Holt, RD, Holzschuh, A, Klein, AM, Kleijn, D, Kremen, C, Landis, DA, Laurance, W, Lindenmayer, D, Scherber, C, Sodhi, N, Steffan-Dewenter, I, Thies, C, van der Putten, WH & Westphal, C 2012, 'Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses', Biological Reviews, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 661-685. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2011.00216.x
Tscharntke, Teja ; Tylianakis, Jason M. ; Rand, Tatyana A. ; Didham, Raphael K. ; Fahrig, Lenore ; Batáry, P. ; Bengtsson, Janne ; Clough, Yann ; Crist, Thomas O. ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fründ, Jochen ; Holt, Robert D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Klein, Alexandra M. ; Kleijn, David ; Kremen, Claire ; Landis, Doug A. ; Laurance, William ; Lindenmayer, David ; Scherber, Christoph ; Sodhi, Navjot ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf ; Thies, Carsten ; van der Putten, Wim H. ; Westphal, Catrin. / Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses. In: Biological Reviews. 2012 ; Vol. 87, No. 3. pp. 661-685.
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