For the electron acceptor/donor molecule N-phenylpyrrole (PP), the fast intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) reaction accompanied by dual fluorescence from a locally excited (LE) and an ICT state is investigated in alkyl cyanide solvents as a function of temperature. After a comparison of the X-ray crystal structure of PP with calculations from the literature, absorption and fluorescence spectra of PP in a series of solvents over a wide polarity range are discussed. ICT with PP strongly depends on solvent polarity and starts to appear in solvents more polar than diethyl ether. From an analysis of the ICI/LE fluorescence quantum yield ratio φ′(ICT)/φ(LE), approximate data for the change in enthalpy -ΔH of the ICT reaction of PP are obtained, ranging from 9 kJ/mol in acetonitrile (MeCN) to 4 kJ/mol in n-butyl cyanide (BuCN). From ICT and LE fluorescence decays of PP measured as a function of temperature, the forward (Ea = 9 kJ/mol in ethyl cyanide (EtCN) and 6 kJ/mol in MeCN) and backward (Ed = 16 kJ/mol in EtCN and MeCN) ICT reaction barriers are determined. From these data, -ΔH (7 kJ/mol (EtCN); 10 kJ/mol (MeCN)) is calculated, in good agreement with the results coming from φ′(ICT)/φ(LE). The data for Ea show that the forward ICT barrier becomes smaller with increasing solvent polarity, whereas the absence of change for Ed comes from the compensating increase of -ΔH. Both observations are indicative of a late transition state for the LE → ICT reaction. For PP in EtCN and MeCN, the ICT radiative rate constant k′f(ICT) increases with temperature. This is caused by the ICT low transition dipole moment and hence does not contain information on the molecular structure (twisted or planar) of the ICT state. The fast ICT observed with PP supports our previous conclusion, based on a comparison of PP with its planarized derivative fluorazene, that the pyrrole and phenyl moieties in the ICT state of PP are coplanar and possess substantial electronic coupling.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry