Background: About 2% of childhood episodes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) are recurrent, and most remain unexplained. Objective: To report two cases of otherwise healthy, unrelated children with recurrent IPD as the only clinical infectious manifestation of an inherited disorder in nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB)-dependent immunity. Results: One child carried two germline mutations in IRAK4, and had impaired cellular responses to interteukin (IL)1 receptor and toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. The other child carried a hemizygous mutation in NEMO, associated with a broader impairment of NF-κB activation, with an impaired cellular response to IL-1R, TLR and tumour necrosis factor receptor stimulation. The two patients shared a narrow clinical phenotype, associated with two related but different genotypes. Conclusions: Otherwise healthy children with recurrent IPD should be explored for underlying primary immunodeficiencies affecting the IRAK4-dependent and NEMO-dependent signalling pathways.
ASJC Scopus subject areas