Ionizing radiation-induced immune and inflammatory reactions in the brain

Katalin Lumniczky, Tünde Szatmári, G. Sáfrány

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Radiation-induced late brain injury consisting of vascular abnormalities, demyelination, white matter necrosis, and cognitive impairment has been described in patients subjected to cranial radiotherapy for brain tumors. Accumulating evidence suggests that various degrees of cognitive deficit can develop after much lower doses of ionizing radiation, as well. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these alterations are not elucidated so far. A permanent deficit in neurogenesis, chronic microvascular alterations, and blood-brain barrier dysfunctionality are considered among the main causative factors. Chronic neuroinflammation and altered immune reactions in the brain, which are inherent complications of brain irradiation, have also been directly implicated in the development of cognitive decline after radiation. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview on radiation-induced immune alterations and inflammatory reactions in the brain and summarizes how these processes can influence cognitive performance. The available data on the risk of low-dose radiation exposure in the development of cognitive impairment and the underlying mechanisms are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number517
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume8
Issue numberMAY
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 5 2017

Fingerprint

Ionizing Radiation
Radiation
Cerebrovascular Trauma
Brain
Neurogenesis
Demyelinating Diseases
Blood-Brain Barrier
Brain Neoplasms
Necrosis
Radiotherapy
Cognitive Dysfunction

Keywords

  • Cognitive effects
  • Immune reactions
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Low-dose radiation
  • Neuroinflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

Ionizing radiation-induced immune and inflammatory reactions in the brain. / Lumniczky, Katalin; Szatmári, Tünde; Sáfrány, G.

In: Frontiers in Immunology, Vol. 8, No. MAY, 517, 05.05.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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